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JD Fluckey, Ph.D. Associate Professor Steve Bui Doctoral Candidate Web site: mbl.tamu PowerPoint Presentation
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JD Fluckey, Ph.D. Associate Professor Steve Bui Doctoral Candidate Web site: mbl.tamu

JD Fluckey, Ph.D. Associate Professor Steve Bui Doctoral Candidate Web site: mbl.tamu

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JD Fluckey, Ph.D. Associate Professor Steve Bui Doctoral Candidate Web site: mbl.tamu

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  1. KINE 433-501 Physiology of Exercise JD Fluckey, Ph.D. Associate Professor Steve Bui Doctoral Candidate Web site: http://mbl.tamu.edu

  2. KINE 433-504 • Basic Exercise Physiol. • Applied Exercise Physiol. • Motor Behavior • Teacher Certification • Other

  3. I N T R O D U C T I O N AN INTRODUCTION TO EXERCISE AND SPORT PHYSIOLOGY

  4. w Note the differences between acute responses to exercise and chronic adaptations to training. (continued) Learning Objectives w Learn to differentiate exercise physiology and sport physiology. w Become familiar with the evolution of exercise physiology and its early scholars.

  5. Learning Objectives w Learn what factors affect the body's acute response to exercise. w Understand the six basic principles of training. w Learn how to accurately read and interpret tables and graphs. w Learn whether cross-sectional studies or longitudinal studies are more accurate.

  6. Exercise Physiology vs. Sport Physiology Exercise physiologists study how the body’s structures and functions are altered when exposed to acute and chronic bouts (i.e., training) of exercise using human or animal subjects. Sport physiologists apply exercise physiology concepts to an athlete's training and performance.

  7. Historical Note on Exercise Physiology The earliest written record referring to the physiology of exercise: “Eating alone will not keep a man well; he must also take exercise. For food and exercise, while possessing opposite qualities, yet work together to produce health. For it is the nature of exercise to use up material, but of food and drink to make good deficiencies. And it is necessary, as it appears, do discern the power of the various exercises, both natural exercises and artificial, to know which of them tends to increase flesh and which to lessen it.” Hippocrates, Regimen in Health, ~400 B.C. Statue believed to be likeness of Hippocrates

  8. Historical Note on Exercise Physiology The earliest published use of the specific term, “physiology of exercise”: William Byford, On the Physiology of Exercise, American Journal of Medical Sciences, 1855

  9. Early Exercise Physiologists Archibald V. Hill w British Nobel Prize winner (1921) w Studied energy metabolism and muscle physiology w First studies on runners

  10. Contemporary Exercise Physiologists John Holloszy, Charles Tipton, and Phil Gollnick w Introduced biochemical approach to exercise physiology research w First to use rats and mice to study muscle metabolism and fatigue

  11. Exercise Physiologists David Costill, Director of HPL from 1966 to 1998. Costill with Bill Rodgers, 5 time winner of the Boston Marathon (right).

  12. Exercise Physiologists Jack Wilmore testing Peter Snell ~ 1972

  13. Exercise Physiologists W. Larry Kenney, Professor Penn State University We hosted Dr. Kenney for seminar on November 2, 2011.

  14. Exercise Physiologists Prof. Bengt Saltin Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre University of Copenhagen, Denmark

  15. Key Points Research Methodology w Laboratory research allows investigators to carefully control variables and use accurate equipment. w Field research allows for less control of variables and equipment, but the participant’s activities are often more natural.

  16. w Makes it easier to assess blood pressure and collect blood because upper body is relatively immobile w Results are not greatly affected by body weight or changes in body weight Cycle Ergometer

  17. Treadmill w Results in generally higher maximal physiological values—heart rate, ventila- tion, and oxygen uptake— than cycle ergometer

  18. Swimming Flume w Allows swimmers to closely simulate their natural swimming strokes while researchers collect data

  19. Acute Responses vs. Chronic Adaptations Acute responses to training involve how the body responds to one bout of exercise (for example, the increase in heart rate). Chronic physiological adaptations to training mark how the body responds over time to the stress of repeated exercise bouts (for example, the decrease in resting heart rate).

  20. Homeostasis and Steady State Homeostasis: maintenance of a constant, unchanging internal environment by the physiological systems; normally only possible at rest; typically operate by negative feedback Powers and Howley, Exercise Physiology, 2004

  21. Homeostasis and Steady State Homeostasis: maintenance of a constant, unchanging internal environment by the physiological systems; normally only possible at rest; typically operate by negative feedback Powers and Howley, Exercise Physiology, 2004

  22. Homeostasis and Steady State Steady State: a constant internal environment that may be different than rest, for example during steady state exercise Powers and Howley, Exercise Physiology, 2004

  23. Physiological Importance of “Δs” (deltas) • Most physiological processes operate because of differences or gradients in the controlled variable, e.g.: • Blood flows through the circulatory system because of pressure gradients (i.e., ΔP) • Air flows in the respiratory tract because of air pressure gradients • Ions move across membranes because of concentration and electrical gradients • Heat moves from the warm skin to the cooler surrounding air because of temperature gradients

  24. Reading graphs: understand the axes! • Steady state • Maximum (Max) • Threshold

  25. w Longitudinal studies are often more accurate than cross-sectional studies, but they can’t always be done. Key Points Research Methodology w Longitudinal research tests the same subjects and compares results over time. w Cross-sectional research collects data from a diverse population and compares the data for each group in that population.

  26. CROSS-SECTIONAL RESEARCH In this study, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C - “good cholesterol”) was measured in groups of subjects undergoing different volumes of exercise

  27. LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH In this study, HDL-C was measured over time in a group of subjects training with distance running and a group of sedentary persons

  28. Thought Question What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs?