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Elements of an Argument. Rhetorical Triangle. pathos. ethos. audience. speaker. message. logos. The Appeals. pathos – emotional appeal; stirs strong feelings within the audience logos – logical appeal; constructs a message of a well-reasoned argument

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rhetorical triangle
Rhetorical Triangle

pathos

ethos

audience

speaker

message

logos

the appeals
The Appeals
  • pathos – emotional appeal; stirs strong feelings within the audience
  • logos – logical appeal; constructs a message of a well-reasoned argument
  • ethos – ethical appeal; establishes credibility and authority of speaker
how do i identify pathos
How do I identify pathos?
  • Connotative diction
  • Diction
  • Imagery
  • Figurative language (metaphor, personification, hyperbole, etc. )
  • Carefully-crafted syntax (sentence structure)
  • Personal anecdotes (experiences or stories)
how do i identify logos
How do I identify logos?
  • Facts
  • Statistics
  • Research
  • Referring to experts
  • Cause & effect
how do i identify ethos
How do I identify ethos?
  • Stating qualifications for expertise
  • Using first person plural pronouns (“we”)
  • Citing relevant authorities
  • Citing relevant allusions
slide8
Call to action – the action the speaker or writer is persuading the audience or reader to take
  • Claim – debatable controversial statement the speaker or writer intends to prove with evidence
  • Commentary – connecting the evidence to the claim (How does evidence support claim?)
  • Concession – respectful acknowledgement of opposing viewpoint
slide9
Hook – the beginning of a persuasive essay meant to capture the reader’s attention (quote, profound statement, imagery, etc.)
  • Evidence – support for writer’s claim (examples, anecdotes, facts, statistics, research, etc.)
  • Thesis – a sentence that expresses the writer’s position on a certain topic
  • Qualifier – puts limits on a claim (usually, sometimes, in most cases, etc.)
slide11
1. Introduction

a. Hook

b. Thesis

2. Body Paragraph 1

a. Claim

b. Evidence

c. Commentary

  • Body Paragraph 2

a. Claim

b. Evidence

c. Commentary

4. Body Paragraph 3

a. Claim

b. Evidence

c. Commentary

5. Conclusion

a. Refutation – (slight CONCESSION)

b. Make it memorable (CALL TO ACTION)

terms of concessions
Terms of Concessions
  • I concede that…; however, …
  • Yes, but…
  • I recognize that …, but I must point out that…
  • While I agree that…, we must remember that…
  • Although I understand that…, I still believe that…