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Morphology,Cultivation ,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Wheat( Triticum aestivum & Maize( Zea mays ). Dr VISHAL SHARMA Assoc. Prof. Botany Department Government Post Graduate College For Girls-11,Chandigarh.
Morphology,Cultivation ,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Wheat(Triticumaestivum& Maize(Zeamays) Dr VISHAL SHARMA Assoc. Prof. Botany Department Government Post Graduate College For Girls-11,Chandigarh
Wheat is the world’s most widely cultivated crop.It generally grows in the regions where winters are cool followed by relatively warm and dry summers for ripening with moderate rainfall(30-60cm). The crop is typically sown as a winter crop in India. It is sown in September or October after the summer monsoon rains are over.It is grown as rabicrop.It has protein content of 11-15% and two binding proteins:glutein and gliadin
Area of Cultivation: • The important wheat growing countries are USSR, USA,India,France,Canada,Italy and • Argentina.InIndia,about 84%of the Wheat grows in U.P, M.P, Haryana,Punjab,Bihar, • Rajasthan • Indian Wheat Classification • • Three species of Wheat namely, (i) T. aestivum, (ii) T. durum and (iii) T. dicoccumare being cultivated in the country, as per details given as under : • Major Growing Areas • iT. aestivum:95% Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, • Assam , Parts of Madhya Pradesh,Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir • ii T. durum: 4% Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra,Gujarat, Southern Rajasthan and few • locations in Punjab. • iii T. dicoccum:1% Karnataka, Maharastra & Tamil Nadu
Facts About Wheat • • India is the third largest wheat producer in the world after European Union & China. • • Wheat is grown in Rabi season starting from October and continues till • December end. • • Weather conditions in Haryana & Punjab plays a very vital role in • ascertaining the final output. • • Area under wheat cultivation hovers in the range of 25 – 29 million • hectares. • • Production from the last few years has been continuously good due to • favorable weather conditions and increasing acreage. • • USDA’s prediction for India’s wheat production for 2008-09 year is 77.5 • million tonnes. • • Last years production was around 78.6 Million tonnes. • • The minimum support price this year was hiked to Rs1080 per quintal as • compared to Rs 1000 previously
Soil: Wheat grown on loamy,fertileslit,clay loams with good drainage and moderate water holding capacity.On the basis of soil types, the wheat growing areas are broadly classified into five divisiond 1.Gangetic alluvium of Bihar &U.P 2.Indus alluvium of Panjab 3.Blacksoil regions of central and southern India 4The hilly egions of Himalayas and Shiwaliks 5The Desert soil Rajasthan Cultivation Practices: Wheat is the world’s most widely cultivated crop.It is adapted to a variety of climates.It is grown mostly in the warm temperate regions.It is generally grown in regions where winters are cool followed by relatively warm and dry summers for ripening with moderate rainfall between 30 and 60cm.
Sowing of wheat : Optimum date of sowing depends on type of variey, weather, soil, irrigation facility etc. However, most appropriate time of sowing is when the daily ambient temperature drops to 20-22 0C. Therefore second fortnight of November is optimum time of sowing in Northern plainsLast Dates upto which sowing would be economical are:upto 25th December - in North-West plain Zoneupto 10th December - in North-East plain & Central Zoneupto 30th November - in Peninsular Zone Soaking seeds in water overnight before sowing, useing higher seed rate, closer spacing, shallow sowing (2-3 cm) and spreading thin covering of FYM soon after sowing, can reduce loss caused by late sowing, The dwarf wheats should be sown only at 5-6 cm depth as they have shorter coleoptiles. Seeding depth of 8-10 cm results in poor germination and reduced yield. The optimum seed rate, for timely sown wheat, is 100 to 125 kg of seed per hectare. Row to row spacing should be 22.5 to 23 cm.The late sown wheat should be sown in rows spaced 15-18 cm with seed rate 125 to 156 kg/ha (about 25% higher than that of timely sown) Relay copping of wheat in an early planted potato crop is a high bonus cropping system.
Fertilizer: (1)NITROGEN :On an exhausted mineral soil, dwarf wheat and tall wheat shows appreciable response upto 120 and 60 kg N per hectare respectively, irrespective of soil type and agro-climatic zone. Nitrogen applied in 2 split dose, half at sowing and half at first irrigation (Crown Root Initiation Stage) is very efficient and convenient under alllsitutions. Recent study reveals that N application 1/3rd at sowing and 2/3 at first node stage gives maximum production. (2)PHOSPHORUS :In wheat crop phosphorus imarts a great influence on growth and development. Application of 40-60 kg P2O5 per hectare is recommended at the time of sowing, depending on the initial soil value. (3)POTASH AND ZINC :Most of the soils in India are rich in potash content and quantity of zinc required by wheat is very small. Therefore application of potash and zinc is recommended only if soil tests reveal K and Zn deficency. Under such situation potash at the rate of 40-60 kg K2O per hectare and zinc sulphate at the rate of 25-35 kg per hectare is suggested. Both these nutrients should be placed at the time of sowing.
Irrigation: • The most appropriate criterion of irrigation in wheat crop is physiological or growth stages. These are- Crown Root Initiation (21 days after sowing)- Late Tillering (42 days after sowing)- Late Joinging(60 days after sowing)- Flowering (80 days after sowing)- Milk stage (95 days after sowing) and- Dough Ripe (115 days after sowing) Among these stages, crown root initiation stage is most critical. An irrigation delay of 2 to 3 weeks in this stage reduce the yield by 5 to 10 q/ha. If level of groundwater is well below root zone (about 100 cm) and significant rainfall is not received during growing season than 4 to 6 irrigations are considered optimum as demanded by soil type, local climate and variety type. The border method of irrigation is most suitable for wheat crop as it ensures uniform distribution and high water application efficiency
(1)PusaTripti (HD-2833)(2006):Late sown & Irrigated conditions of PZ, released by IARI New Delhi (2) Urja(HD 2864):for late sown, irrigated conditions for CZ region, released by IARI New Delhi HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES OF WHEAT
BOTANICAL NAME:Zeamays COMMON NAME:Makkai FAMILY:Poaceae Introduction Maize (Zeamays L.) is ranked second to wheat among the world cereal crops (FAO ,1986).Maize is one of the most important cereal crops of the world.This mane has been derived from the South American Indian Arawak mane “mahiz”.This is also known by the name “Indian Corn” Maize crop is utilised in a number of ways. Maize grain contains about 10% protein, 4% oil, 70% carbohydrate, 2.3% crude fibre, 10.4% albuminoides and 1.4% ash. Maize grain also has sufficient quantities of vitamin A, nicotinic acid, riboflavin and vitamin E. Maize cropfurnishes huge quantities of green fodder for the cattle. Several industries like starch, milling etc. are based on maize products and byproducts.
Area of cultivation: Maize is grown in USA,China,Brazil,Mexico,France,India,Argentina,Hungary and Yugoslavia. In India,it is grown in Bihar,U.P,M.P,H.P,Karnataka,Rajasthan,Maharshtra and Jammu &Kashmir.Bihar contributes nearly15% of India’s total production Soil requirement Maize requires deep fertile and well drained soil rich in organic matter however it can be grown in any type of soil ranging from deep heavy clay to light sandy soil but soil should be medium texture with good water holding capacity and pH range does not exceed from 7.5. Maize plant particularly in seedling stage are highly susceptible to water logging so care should be taken to assure that water does not stagnate on the soil surface for more than 4 to 5 hours. Hence the provision of proper drainage is essential for the successful cultivation of this crop. From the field trails it is observed that a loam or silty loam surface soil and an brown silt clay loam having fairly permeable sub soil are the ideal soil types. Thus the ideal soil is one which is neither clayey nor sandy and has a pH between 6.5 to 7.5 ia ideal.
Climatic requirement Maize is a warm weather loving crop. It is grown under extremely divergent climatic conditions ranging from tropical to temperate region. It can be successfully grown where the night temperature does not go below 15.6 ºC as crop stops growing below this level. The crop cannot withstand frost at any stage of its growth. Young plants are highly susceptible to hailstorm. In Sikkim, occurrence of one or two hailstorms are usually observed in March-April. Therefore, to escape from hailstorm damage in the most critical/susceptible stage, early sowing of maize i.e. during February 2nd fortnight is recommended. The crop can be successfully grown in the areas receiving an annual rainfall from 60 cm to 300 cm. the rainfall should be well distributed throughout its growth period. The crop may tolerate an annual rainfall of 250 or 400 cm provided the field does not get flooded as water logging is hazardous for the crop at any growth stage. The maize needs bright sunny days for an accelerated photosynthetic activity and rapid growth of plants but this has to be associated with an abundant water supply failing which the crop will start wilting or withering. Prolonged cloudy period is harmful for the crop but an intermittent sunlight and cloud or rain is the most ideal for its growth. Rain free sunny days during flowering period favour better pollen dispersal vis-à-vis seed set. In Sikkim, one or two heavy winds occur just before the onset of rainy season (April end to May first week) which coincide with knee-high stage of the crop. plants growing in fertile soil will lodge. Local varieties are also susceptible to lodge. Therefore, proper earthing up is needed during knee-high stage.
Field Preparation and Sowing The main objective of field preparation are to control weeds, facilitates sowing, provide aeration and better seed soil contact, improve water holding capacity, etc. and successful maize cultivation requires good seed bed. These things may be achieved by giving one deep summer ploughing immediate after harvest of rabi crop. It is essential by which inner layer of soil is exposed to sun thereby killing insects and weeds. Before sowing plough the field once or twice followed by breaking the clods with the help of power tiller or level the field by hand fork/farua. To provide drainage, remove the soil around the terrace and raise the height of the bed by 20-30 cm. leveling can be done on the day of sowing so that soil compactness can be reduced.Seed rate:The recommended seed rate : Local varieties & Composite: 20 kg/ha Hybrid Varieties: 10 kg/ha Seed treatment:Seeds should be well coated with bio-fertilizer like Azotobacter @ 200gm and Phosphobacteria in 400 ml water per 10 to 12 kg seeds. It will considerably increase the yield by fixing atmospheric nitrogen to 10 kg/ha and make unavailable phosphorus available to plants by solubilization. Instead of Azotobacter it is better and wherever Rice bean/soybean/urd intercropping is planned, add 2 kg of Rhizobium in addition to Azotobacter and Phosphobacteria. If seed treatment is not given apply Rhizobium 4 kg + Phosphotica 2kg in 100 to 200 kg of compost.
Depth of sowing: Depth of sowing is governed by soil moisture regime and soil type. Seeds should be sown at 2 to 3 cm depth where sufficient soil moisture is available to enable germination. Deep sowing will affect the germination and growth, however at drier zone deep sowing is recommended for uniform germination. Broadcasting method:In this method seeds are broadcasted and scattered by hand over the well ploughed land. The seeds are covered with top soil either by ploughing immediately or by manual planking. This method of sowing is still common in some backward farmers but it is unscientific. This method has several drawbacks i.e. all the seed do not get proper soil moisture content and do not germinate, some amount of seeds are eaten by birds as it does not covered fully with the soil result in an uneven and poor germination, difficulties in intercultural operation especially in weeding and hoeing,. More seed are needed to be sown than the recommended level which in crease the cost of cultivation and reduce the net profit. This method of sowing is basically used for the cultivation of fodder crops. 2. Line-sowing method: It is superior method of sowing than the broadcasting because line sowing of crop facilitates the cultural operations and optimum plant population for maximum yield. In this method seeds are sown by different method in the rows by keeping a proper distance and depth using a seed row marker or wooden line marker called “Halo” or using a working plough. In one method lines are formed by halo and seeds are sown in the line.
In this method, in single species hill planting where each hill 60–120 cm (2.0–3.9 ft) apart was planted with 3 or 4 seeds, a method still used by home gardeners. A later technique was checked maize where hills were placed 40 inches apart in each direction, allowing cultivators to run through the field in two directions. In more arid lands this was altered and seeds were planted in the bottom of 10–12 cm (3.9–4.7 in) deep furrows to collect water. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the maize fields
In another method, lines are formed at shallow depth using country plough and then seeds are dibbled in the furrows. Finally seeds are covered from exposure using top layer soil. The recommended spacing are: 1. Low fertile soil : 45 × 20 cm 2. Medium fertile soil : 60 × 15 cm. Sowing the seed behind the plough: This method is very common in Sikkim as well as all the maize growing areas of the country. After the preparation of field shallow furrows are opened with the help of country plough and seeds are dropped in them by hand. Sometime a funnel is attached with an iron pipe in the hand of plough and the seeds dropped at desired depth and spacing for obtaining satisfactory germination. After dropping of seeds planking is done thereafter to cover the seeds. This method permits sowing across the slopes only. Dibbling method: This method is very time taking as the seeds are placed with the help of khurpi manually at required distance in the row. It needs less seed rate and is the best method for costly seeds. It can be practiced in small and uneven terraces. Hill sowing: In this method the seeds are dropped with the help of corn planters. The planters are placed at an appropriate place pressed for dropping four seeds at one place which is technically known as hill. It also needs relatively less seed rate. Sowing crops in sunrise and sunset direction is believed to have higher grain yield and production of healthier plants because of least or no mutual shading of the plants. The response more pronounced with hybrid and composite varieties as they are most sensitive to shading effect.
Nutrient ManagementNutrient requirement and its mode of application is governed by a number of factors viz. soil type, planting season, variety, preceding crop, method and time of fertilizer application etc. Maize crop are heavy feeder hence it requires a regulated and assured nutrient supply particularly nitrogen through out its growing period right from seedling stage to grain filling stage. Nitrogen:Nitrogen is an essential element to boost maize productivity. Its deficiency is characterized by a stunted and spindly plant growth with yellowing of green foliage particularly the lower leaves. The nitrogen utilization pattern is found to be increased from seedling to knee high stage and reach to the peak at tasselling stage. Phosphorus: It helps in development of all phases of maize plants and its deficiency leads to purpling of leaves and tend to delay maturity with an imperfect ear formation. Phosphorus deficiency can be noticed at seedling stage. Experiment indicates that the grain yield is increased to the extent of 50 to 200% depending upon phosphate availability in the soil. For an economical application of phosphate and best response of the crop it becomes essential to get the soil tested for the availability of phosphate in the soil.
Potassium:It is essential for translocation of water and photosynthates within the plant body. Higher dose of nitrogen and phosphate make it essential to apply potassium to the crop. It is observed that the plant need more than half of their potash requirement up to or before flowering stage which makes it a must to apply potassium along with phosphate as basal row placement. Its deficiency is characterized by shortening of internodes, yellowing of leaves and necrosis or scorching at the margin of the lower leaves. Organic manure:A judicious application of organic manure such as well rotten F.Y.M or compost @ 5 tonnes/acre is practically feasible about 20 days before sowing of the crop or application of oilcakes @ 6 to 10 quintals / ha has been found to be most ideal for an increased crop yields especially for grain production. Watering: Being a water loving crop,it requires constant supply of moisture.During the Silking and tasselingstage,the demand for the water is greatest,otherwise,it results in production of poorely filled ears
Harvesting The crop is harvested manually when they show distinct sign of maturity or drying. The crop should be harvested when cob sheath dry and turns yellowish in color, grains become hard and they do not contain more than 20 % of moisture in them. In case of indigenous variety the plant start yellowing and drying along with the maturity of the cobs but in case of hybrid and composite varieties the plant may remain green at the time of full maturity of the crop, therefore the color of plant become misleading in such cases. There are two methods of harvesting viz. plucking of cobs and stalk cutting. In case of former method ears are removed from the standing plant and they are piled up for 24 hours and they are spread for drying in sun. In this method the stalk may be used as a green fodder. If rice bean was intercropped in maize only cobs are removed and stalk remain in the field till rice bean mature. While in a stalk cutting the plant are cut and piled up in shade and the cobs are removed after 2 or 3 days of harvesting. The dried plants are used for hay making. The cobs thus removed are dried as in previous method.In case of baby corn, the cobs are harvested when they are young, fresh and finger like green ears before or just at the time of silk emergence. Care should be taken so as to get the delicate, sweet, tender having pleasant flavor. Delayed harvesting should always be avoided.Yield:Grain yield varies according to variety, place of cultivation and inputs used. The average yield in Sikkim is recorded 1588kg/ha during 2006 – 07. But this yield can be increased up to 3 to 5 tonnes/ha if scientific package of practices are followed.
Following crop rotation is recommended in Sikkim:Maize – Wheat Maize – Mustard Maize – Buckwheat Maize – Paddy – Potato Maize – Paddy – Mustard Maize – Millet Maize-Urd-Mustard Mixed cropping:Maize + Soybean Maize + Rice beans Maize + UrdMaize + Ginger
Very early-maturity types, maturing in 65-75 days, e.g. Sathi, Kathri and Teen Pakhia, • Medium early-maturing varieties subjected to a limited degree of improvement, e.g. • ‘Basi,’ ‘KT 41’, ‘Jaunpur’, ‘Rudrapur Local’, and • Late-maturing varieties, introductions of contaminated types, e.g. ‘Malan’. White flint • varieties are also grown in certain pockets of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. • Maize varieties cultivated at north-eastern high elevations have varied colour mixtures • ranging from white, yellow, red to deep purple. • Under the auspices of the All-India Co-ordinated Maize Improvement Scheme, eleven • high-yielding hybrids (‘Ganga-1’, ‘Ganga-101’, ‘Ranjit’, ‘Deccan’, ‘Ganga-5’ • , ‘Ganga Safed-2’. ‘Hi-Starch’, Ganga-4’, ‘Himalayan 123’, ‘Ganga-3’ and ‘V.L. 54’) • and six composites (‘Vijay’, ‘Amber’, ‘Sona’, ‘Kisan’, ‘Jawahar’ and ‘Vikram’) • have been released for cultivation in various regions of the country. Seed of these hybrids • and composite varieties are being multiplied and sold through the • National seeds Corporation, The Tarai Development Corporation and various state • agencies which may be contacted for their supply. Hybrids and composites are • being sold in sealed bags, each containing enough seed to plant one hectare. Unlike hybrids, the • farmers using composites can save their own seed for the • following year. • Three nutritionally superior opaque-2 maize composites, namely ‘Shakti’, ‘Rattan’ and ‘Protina’, • have also been released for general cultivation. These opaque-2 • composites are very rich in the essential amino acids, particularly lysine and tryptophan
USES OF MAIZE Maize is a major source of starch. Cornstarch (maize flour) is a major ingredient in home cooking and in many industrialized food products. Maize is also a major source of cooking oil (corn oil) and of maize gluten. Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. Grain alcohol from maize is traditionally the source of bourbon whiskey. Maize is sometimes used as the starch source for beer. Maize meal is also a significant ingredient of some commercial animal food products, such as dog food Maize is also used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". It is particularly popular in Europe for coarse fis Starch from maize can also be made into plastics, fabrics, adhesives, and many other chemical products.Stigmas from female maize flowers, known popularly as corn silk, are sold as herbal supplementshing .Maize and cornmeal (ground dried maize) constitutes a staple food in many regions of the world Popcorn is kernels of certain varieties that explode when heated, forming fluffy pieces that are eaten as a snack..
Three nutritionally superior opaque-2 maize composites, namely ‘Shakti’, ‘Rattan’ and ‘Protina’, have also been released for general cultivation. These opaque-2 composites are very rich in the essential amino acids, particularly lysine and tryptophan. The genetic make-up of these materials necessitates the cultivation of these composites in isolation from normal maize. Any contamination of opaque-2 will be apparent in the form of normal transparent kernels in contrast to the dull marble-like appearance of opaque-2. An isolation distance of 300-400 metres is adequate. With the increase in the number of border rows, the isolation distance can be suitably reduced. Even in the absence of isolation, the farmers planting 2-4 hectares can save the seed from the middle of the field, whereas the rest of the crop can be used as nutritionally superior grain. Opaque-2 maize will be very useful as a human food as well as an animal feed, particularly for poultry and piggery