Agricultural Entomology. What is Agriculture?. The cultivation of plants/animals for Human Use Includes plants used for : Food (Fruits, vegetables, grains and oil seeds) Animal Feed Fiber products (like wood or cotton). Tarrant Co. Agriculture Factoids.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
What is Agriculture? • The cultivation of plants/animals for Human Use • Includes plants used for : • Food (Fruits, vegetables, grains and oil seeds) • Animal Feed • Fiber products (like wood or cotton)
Tarrant Co. Agriculture Factoids • In 1997, There were 1048 farms covering 184,081 acres of land. • These farms produce over $40 Million worth of ag. Products each year. • Major Tarrant Co. Crops include: • Seed Corn • Sorghum • Wheat • Grass and alfalfa hay
What Role Do Insects Play in Agriculture? • Harmful insects: • Eat parts of plant, causing weakened growth and production • Eat parts of plant that we eat, spoiling crop • Spread diseases that weaken or kill the plant
Beneficial Insects: • Eat or parasitize harmful insects, keeping their populations in check. • Pollinate • Produce Marketable Products (honey, wax, silk)
One Plant, Many Pests • Apple Trees: • Plum Curculio – Fruit Damage
Apple Pests • Codling Moth-fruit damage
Apple Pests • Apple Maggot Fly – Fruit Damage
Apple Pests • Rosy apple aphid – Foliage and Fruit Damage
Apple Pests • Flat-Head Apple Tree Borer – Wood Damage
Cotton Pests • Cotton Aphid
Cotton Pests • Cotton Bollworm
Cotton Pests • Cotton Leaf Perforator
How Do Farmers Deal With Pest Insects? • Chemical Control • Biological Control • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Chemical Control Pesticides: Synthetic or Natural Chemicals used to interrupt the normal physiological processes of insects. Timing is important! Some applications may make the problem worse in the long run. Some pesticides can harm people, too!
BioControl • Natural Enemies: Insects that prey upon or parasitize pest insects, keeping their populations at a minimal level • Pheromone Trapping: using chemical signals to trap adults before they can lay eggs • Bt transgenic plants – are toxic to Lepidopteran pests.
Natural Enemies • Come in 2 categories: • Generalists – eat a variety of pest and beneficial species. • Specialists – Have specific prey or hosts.
Frequently Released Generalists Green Lacewings
Frequently Released Generalists • Ladybird Beetles
Frequently Released Generalists • Mantids
Specialists • Mealybug Destroyer Predatory Thrips
Specialists • Parasitoids
Transgenic Crops • Bacillus thuringiensis genes inserted into genome of many different crops. • B. thuringiensis is a naturally occuring bacteria that produces a protein that is lethal to Lepidoptera. • Bt Plants produce their own pesticide, and aren’t harmful to people. • Selection for plants that don’t produce the protein in their pollen reduces the risk to non-target species.
Pollinators • In order to produce fruit, vegetables, or seed, many plants need insect pollinators.
Insect Products • Apis millifera, The Honey Bee
Scale Insect Products • Shellac • Cochineal dyes