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Chapter 7 A Tour of the Cell -- Part 1. TOPICS: How to study cells Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic Nucleus and Ribosomes Endomembrane system Other membranous organelles. How do we study cells?. Know the different microscopes and their purposes: Light microscope (what we have at TPHS)

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chapter 7 a tour of the cell part 1

Chapter 7A Tour of the Cell -- Part 1

TOPICS: How to study cells

Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic

Nucleus and Ribosomes

Endomembrane system

Other membranous organelles

how do we study cells
How do we study cells?
  • Know the different microscopes and their purposes:
    • Light microscope (what we have at TPHS)
    • Electron microscope
    • SEM (scanning)—surface “scanning”, the outside (see fig. 7.2, 7.9, or 7.23 b in the book)
    • TEM (transmission)—”transmits” through the specimen to see inside. (see fig. 7.2, 7.13 b, or 7.18 in the book)
  • Figure 7.1: size range in cells
figure 7 3 cell fractionation centrifuge
Figure 7.3cell fractionation, centrifuge

What are the largest organelles/parts of a cell that fraction off into the pellet first? What are the smallest? (last)

why are most cells so small
Why are most cells so small?
  • Prokaryotic (“before”, “kernel” aka: nucleus)
  • Archaea and Bacteria, no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, usually much smaller, figure 7.4, they have: cytoplasm, cytosol, 1 circular chromosome, plasma membrane, cell wall, ribosomes, nucleiod.
  • Eukaryotic (“true”, “kernel”)
  • Membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles, compartmentalized cells, animals, plants, fungi, protists. These cells are larger due to compartmentalization.
figures on pages 108 109
Figures on pages 108 – 109.
  • Know the names, identify the structures and know the functions of all of the organelles listed on these diagrams.
  • Know major differences between the typical animal and typical plant cells.
  • Animals: centrioles,
  • Plants: (plastids) chloroplasts, cell wall, large central vacuole, tonoplast
the nucleus and ribosomes
The Nucleus and Ribosomes
  • Nucleus: contains most of the genes that control a Eukaryotic cell.
  • Nuclear envelope/nuclear lamina: porous (why?) and double membrane
  • Chromatin (46)/ tightly coiled chromosomes (46), genes
  • Nucleolus, synthesizes ribosomes, in the nucleus
  • Ribosomes: site of protein synthesis
  • Free ribosomes=for the production of proteins to be used in the cytosol and attached ribosomes =on the ER for the production of proteins which are packaged or exported via the ER system.
  • Lamina
  • Outer andinner mem-branes
  • Nucleolus
  • Ribosomes
  • Attachment site of ER
endomembrane system
Endomembrane system
  • Definition:all of these structures have interchangeable membranes, they are all made of a phospholipid bilayer and are fusible with one another.
  • Includes: nuclear envelope (lamina) ER Golgi apparatus lysosomes vacuoles plasma membrane

See Figures 7.14, 7.16, 8.7

Why aren’t mitochondria and chloroplasts in this group?

endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • “Network” of membranes “within the cytoplasm”
  • (compartmentalization: cisternal space)
  • Rough ER: network attached to the nucleus. Example proteins which are made from the attached ribosomes and then “shipped” via the ER: insulin, glycoproteins, transport vesicles.
  • Smooth ER: conducts diverse processes: synthesizes Lipids, detoxifies drugs, metabolizes carbos.: ex: glycogen hydrolysis (breakdown) in the liver.
golgi apparatus bodies
Golgi Apparatus / Bodies
  • Modification and sorting of products from the ER.
  • Secretion organelle
  • Flattened sacs (cisternae), cis and trans faces, (“receiving” and “shipping/transport” sides of the golgi apparatus)
  • Fusion of membranes (fig 7.14, 7.16, & 8.7) is possible since the ER and the Golgi are both of the endomembrane system.
  • Some vesicles have external “identification” molecules *see fig. 8.7

Fig. 7.14 Notice how the vesicle from the ER fuses with the cis side of the golgi and then the trans side of the golgi fuses with a food vacuole to deliver digestive enzymes.

lysosomes fig 7 14
Lysosomes Fig. 7.14
  • Contains hydrolytic enzymes which digest macromolecules and recycle materials from the cell. (see fig 7.14)
  • Usually maintains pH of 5 (acid)
  • Many types:
  • Food vacuoles (in all cells)
  • Contractile vacuoles, in protists like the paramecium (*fig 8.12) for osmoregulation (water regulation).
  • Plants: large central vacuole (tonoplast)
  • Energy transformation (from glucose to ATP)
  • Cellular respiration and ATP generation
  • Contain a small amount of their own DNA (semiautonomous) (Ch. 28), not of the endomembrane system.
  • Double phospholipid bilayer. Cristae, large surface area. Inner membrane and Matrix.
  • * More to come… stay tuned for Chapters 9-10 *
chloroplasts a type of plastid
Chloroplasts (a type of plastid)
  • Energy transformations (sun energy to ATP)
  • Photosynthesis (CO2 and H2O to Glucose)
  • Synthesize organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
  • Contain a small amount of their own DNA (semiautonomous) (Ch 28)
  • Double membrane, thylakoids, grana, stroma fluid

Know the parts:Stroma = fluidthylakoid membranes = are chlorophyll rich grana = stacks of many thylakoids, site of light reactions (because of chlorophyll.)

  • Consume deadly free oxygen within the cell, transport it to mitochondria.
  • Enzymes transfer hydrogen to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
  • H2O2 is also toxic to a cell, and an enzyme made by the peroxisome can break down H2O2