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Chapter 25. World War II. Watch at home. Japanese Point of View Pearl Harbor Documentary 8 min. Pearl Harbor 2001 Attack Cut

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chapter 25

Chapter 25

World War II

watch at home
Watch at home
  • Japanese Point of View
  • Pearl Harbor Documentary 8 min.
  • Pearl Harbor 2001 Attack Cut

FDR Day of Infamy. Declaration of War. Address to Congress, December 8, 1941.

  • (5 minutes)

How did it come to this?

  • Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
  • How did we end up in another World War?

The strangling hand of the Treaty of Versailles gripping a map of Germany which bears a slight image of Adolph Hitler.

treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Much of Germany’s territory, all of its colonies, some of its people were given to France, Belgium, and Poland.
  • Size of Germany’s army and navy were limited.
  • Banned tanks and the air force.
  • War guilt clause
  • Reparation payments
german response
German Response
  • Military revolts
  • Union strikes
  • Communist revolts, thousand dead
  • Assassination of leading politicians
economic distress
Economic Distress
  • 1921 War reparation demanded by the Allies- 6.6 billion pounds.
  • Germans could not pay.
  • French and Belgian troops seized the main industrial region of Germany (Ruhr)
  • German government called on workers to strike.
  • Low-level terrorist campaign by Germans.
  • French strike back brutally (house searches, hostage-taking, shooting over 100 Germans)
economic distress1
Economic Distress
  • Production drops drastically.
  • Unemployment soars from 2% to 23%.
  • Tax revenues collapse.
  • Government prints more money causing inflation.
  • Prices go insanely high (By Nov. 1923, prices are a billion (really) times higher than before the war began in 1914.)
effects of hyperinflation
Effects of Hyperinflation

People had to shop with wheel barrows full of money.

Bartering became common

Restaurants did not print menus as by the time food arrived…the price had gone up!

People burned their furniture to get some heat.

Most of the very rich were land owners and could produce food on their own estates.

The middle class suffered severely as well. Their hard earned savings disappeared overnight. Many middle class families had to sell family heirlooms to survive. Many of those middle class would later turn Hitler and the Nazi Party. 

  • The German economy was on shaky foundations because it was based on huge loans from the United States.
  • 1929 Stock market crash caused U.S. banks to call in its short-term loans to Germany.
  • They couldn’t pay, nor could they export goods for sale so they could pay.
  • Economy collapsed.
rise of the nazis
Rise of the Nazis
characteristics of the nazi regime
Characteristics of the Nazi regime:
  • Police state
  • Blind nationalism
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Totalitarianism
the italian tyrant
The Italian Tyrant

Benito Mussolini established fascism as a nationalistic, militaristic, totalitarian government in 1922.

Nickname: Il Duce

japan s tyrant

Japan also wanted to expand its territory and trade partners.

  • European nations had already carved up Asia in to “spheres of influence.”
  • Japan attacked & subjugated Manchuria in China in 1931.
Japan’s Tyrant
japan s tyrant hideki tojo
Japan’s Tyrant: Hideki Tojo
  • Led a group of warlords to take over the Japanese government, effectively rendering Emperor Hirohito powerless.
  • 1940 Japan joined Italy and Germany to form the Axis of dictator states.
the coming of war
The Coming of War

Hitler’s Advance

  • Britain and France were in no mood for confrontation or war.
  • Hitler said he wanted to get back Germany’s territory that had been broken up and “stolen” with the Treaty of Versailles after WWI.

The policy of giving in to try to satisfy Hitler’s stated demands.

easy acquisitions rhineland
Easy Acquisitions: Rhineland
  • Rhineland 1936 – an industrial region of Germany near Alsace-Lorraine, which was supposed to be demilitarized.

Interactive Map of Europe 1939-1945

  • Siegfried Line – German fortifications
  • Maginot Line – French fortifications
easy acquisitions austria
Easy Acquisitions: Austria
  • Anschluss – union with Austria, German-speaking land.
  • Austrian Nazis staged a coup and took power, “invited” Germany military in.

Austria is the southern part in gold.

easy acquisitions sudetenland
Easy Acquisitions: Sudetenland
  • Hitler declared his intentions to “annex” Sudetenland.
  • Many Germans had fled to Sudetenland from the Nazis.
  • Meeting of England (Chamberlain), France (Daladier), & Hitler in Munich, Germany to discuss the problem.
  • To keep the peace, Chamberlain and Daladier agreed to “give” Hitler the Sudetenland (Sept. 1938).
  • “Munich” became an adjective for appeasement and defeatism.

Sudetenland is the purple area.

easy acquisitions czechoslovakia
Easy Acquisitions: Czechoslovakia
  • In March 1939, Hitler moved to seize the rest of Czechoslovakia.
  • The British and French then signed security agreements with Romania and Poland, hoping that would deter Hitler from advancing.
nazi soviet non aggression pact
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • Russia was a powerful neighbor to the east of Germany.
  • Hitler and Stalin agreed not to fight each other.
  • In fact, Hitler told Stalin he could take the Baltic countries, Finland, and a little piece of Poland and Hitler would take the rest of Poland.

1939 Boundary Lines

war begins
War Begins!
  • On September 1, 1939, fifty-six German divisions roll across the Polish border.
  • 600 Luftwaffe bombed civilian & military targets.
  • 48 hours later, 100,000 Polish casualties
  • On September 3, 1939, British Prime Minister N. Chamberlain declares war on Nazi Germany. France followed.


  • Spring 1940, Hitler attacked and occupied Denmark in a few brief hours.
  • A panzer is a German tank or a division of tanks. (armor)
  • On the same day, the Germans assaulted Norway so it could have naval bases and access to Sweden for its iron resources.
  • The Norwegians bravely resisted but were sold out by a traitor, a government official, Vidkun Quisling assisted German agents and was appointed governor by the Germans afterwards. His name became synonymous for traitor.
fall of france
Fall of France
fall of france1
Fall of France
  • May 10, 1940 Germany moved into the countries on its western border: Tiny Luxembourg (2 days), Holland (5 days), Belgium (18 days), and France.
  • Panzer units outmaneuvered the French and British forces.
  • The Luftwaffe destroyed French fortifications so the tanks rolled into France smoothly.
fall of france2
Fall of France
  • The French people fled their cities.
  • German Stuka dive-bombers filled the air and attacked repeatedly.

Germany’s new weapons and blitzkrieg tactics were fresh and successful, a far cry from the trench warfare of WWI.

  • France’s war technology was out-moded.
  • France was no match for Germany’s tanks and planes.
fall of france dunkirk
Fall of France - Dunkirk
  • The French and British troops were almost surrounded and were pushed back to Dunkirk with their backs to the English Channel.
  • As they were about to be wiped out by the Luftwaffe, fog rolled in, concealing them.
  • By the time the fog had lifted every available British and French vessel, from fishing boats to private yachts, had evacuated 330,000 men.

Paris is abandoned to the Nazis.

  • Ironically, the surrender of France was signed in the same railroad car in which Germany had signed the armistice in 1918.
winston churchill britain s prime minister
Winston Churchill-Britain’s Prime Minister
  • (1:20)
battle of britain
Battle of Britain
  • Hitler planned to bomb Britain into submission because he knew an invasion would not work until it was substantially weakened.
  • The British had radar and knew when the German planes were coming so they were able to shoot many of them down; hence daytime bombing was not efficient for the Germans.
  • The Germans lost 3 times as many planes as the British.
battle of britain1
Battle of Britain
  • The Germans resorted to night bombing Britain’s with fire bombs.
narnia intro night bombing
Narnia intro: Night bombing
barbarossa attack on russia
Barbarossa – Attack on Russia
  • Hitler launched a surprise attack on the Soviet Union to his east.
  • June 22, 1941
  • The “Barbarossa” operation targeted 3 key Russian cities: Leningrad, Moscow, & Stalingrad.
  • Russia bore the brunt of the Germans’ relentlessly brutal warfare.

In just two years, the Nazi blitzkrieg had virtually conquered Europe, with Britain badly damaged.

forces that kept u s on the sidelines
Forces that Kept U.S. on the Sidelines.
  • 1. A tradition of isolationism.
  • 2. Resentment over war debt (from WWI).
  • 3. Americans were focused on economic recovery from the Great Depression.
nervous neutrality
Nervous Neutrality
  • Neutrality Act of 1937 – cut off military supplies to belligerent nations.
    • Roosevelt wanted to change this because it had not hurt Hitler since Germany had already rearmed.
    • However, it did hurt the Allies because they couldn’t get the supplies they desperately needed.

Neutrality Act of 1939

Can purchase weaponry on a CASH BASIS.

Must carry the weapons in their OWN SHIPS.

Called “Cash and Carry”

U.S. ships and passengers could not enter ports of nations at war.

This act actually helped the Germans because they could conduct unrestricted submarine warfare without much fear of ticking off the Americans and drawing them into the war.

Actual captured U-505 in the

Museum of Science & Industry

Chicago, Illinois

  • Americans sympathized with the Allies,
  • But focused on America First (committees)
  • Roosevelt recognized the need for preparedness.
  • First peacetime draft in U.S. history (Sept. 1940)

America First Committee

Meeting in Chicago,

April 23, 1941.

Charles Lindbergh,

featured speaker


Americans vacillated between

    • preparedness and
    • pacificism.
gallup polls 1938 1940
Gallup Polls 1938-1940
  • Page 801 Out of Many.
  • What do these polls tell us about American public opinion about entering the war?
1940 election
1940 Election
  • FDR ran for a third term.
  • During his campaign he promised, “I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again and again: Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”
  • Republican Opponent: Wendell Willkie, former Democrat.
  • Democrat Slogan: “Don’t switch horses in the middle of the stream.”
roosevelt s four freedoms speech
Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms Speech

The U.S. Constitution Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


The U.S. would have to fight the enemies of free people alone if England were destroyed.

  • The four freedoms were one way Roosevelt led Americans into giving more support to the Allies.
  • Congress voted all-out aid to the Allies.
lend lease act
Lend-Lease Act
  • U.S. supplied any Allied nation with war materiel.
deployment of u s forces
Deployment of U.S. Forces
  • Iceland and Greenland to protect North Atlantic shipping lanes.
atlantic charter roosevelt churchill
Atlantic Charter – Roosevelt & Churchill
  • Common Principles
    • Self Determination
    • Freedom of the Seas
    • Economic Cooperation
  • Expressed the Goals of anti-Axis nations
  • Expressed America’s moral commitment to the Allied cause
hitler thought so
Hitler thought so.
  • May 1941: German sub attacks and sinks American merchant vessel near Brazil.
  • September 1941: U.S. destroyer Greer is fired upon by a German submarine.
  • October 1941: U.S. destroyer Kearny is torpedoed, killing 11 sailors.
  • October 1941: U.S. destroyer ReubenJames is sunk in the Atlantic, with 100 sailors lost.

    • Woody Guthrie’s “Sinking of the Reuben James”
the flying tigers in china
The Flying Tigers (in China)
  • Spring 1941 (Period of Neutrality)
  • U.S. asked for “volunteer” pilots to fly 100 P-40 “Tomahawk” fighter planes the U.S. has sent to French General Chennault who was advising Chiang Kai-shek on air power.
  • They were ill-equipped and seriously out-numbered, but they downed 286 Japanese aircraft during 7 months of operation.
  • Officially known as American Volunteer Group (AVG)
flying tigers avg
Flying Tigers (AVG)
  • Flying Tiger Newsreels
  • Flying Tiger Dogfight Re-enactment

Japanese pov

  • Pearl Harbor Documentary 8 min.
  • Pearl Harbor 2001 Attack Cut
pearl harbor1
Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

“A day that will live in infamy” –President FDR

The United States formally enters WWII.

world war ii
World War II
  • U.S. declares war on Japan.
  • Britain declares war on Japan.
  • China declares war on the Axis powers.
  • Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S.
  • U.S. declares war on Germany and Italy.

Major effect of Pearl Harbor attack: virtually no domestic opposition to U.S. involvement in the war remains.

america responds1
America Responds
  • In March 1942, the Allies were in retreat everywhere.
  • Europe had been under Nazi occupation for two years.
  • The Germans and Japanese were riding high on their successes.
  • The Allies needed a morale booster.
the doolittle raid april 18 1942
The Doolittle RaidApril 18, 1942
  • Under command of air-racing hero Lt. Col. James “Jimmy” Doolittle, the Americans strike back at the Japanese.
  • Sixteen B-25 Mitchell aircraft tightly loaded aboard the new U.S. Navy carrier Hornet, set out for a bomb strike on the Japanese capital, Tokyo.

The planes had been modified to save fuel.

  • The tail sections were removed, and the tail guns replaced with broom sticks which made the bombers defenseless in their vulnerable tail sections.

Unfortunately, they were spotted by Japanese picket ships just hours from launch time.

  • They had to scramble and launch earlier than planned.
  • With a longer-than-expected flight, the pilots knew they might not have enough fuel to make it to a landing strip in China. (The carriers turned back to Pearl.)

The bombing of Tokyo proved to be easy.

  • The city was undergoing air raid drills and assumed the bombers were part of the drill.
  • The bombs hit factories, military targets, and one hit the imperial palace.
  • Short of fuel, all the planes either crash- landed or their crews bailed out short of their Chinese landing sites.
results of the doolittle raid
Results of the Doolittle Raid
  • The Doolittle Raid was a morale booster for the Americans and their Allies.
  • It was the first time the Army Air Force & the U.S. Navy teamed up in a combat operation.
  • The raid forced the Japanese to send forces to defend their home island
  • But it was more than 2 years later before American bombers would return to Japan.
fall of the philippines2
Fall of the Philippines
  • President Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur to leave the Philippines to avoid capture.
  • MacArthur reluctantly complies promising, “I shall return.”
  • In April the American forces surrender and become Japanese prisoners of war (POWs).
bataan death march
Bataan Death March
  • 70,000 Filipinos & Americans surrendered, the largest American army to surrender in history.
  • Some refused to surrender and fled to the jungle to join with Filipinos to form a guerrilla resistance that may have numbered as many as 180,000.
  • Forced 60 mile march from Bataan to Ft. O’Donnell
  • Between 5000 and 11000 died on the way.

Interviewer: Did you witness cruelty on the death march?

  • Alfred X. Burgos: Oh, yes. For example, if you should not want to walk anymore -- let's say you were tired -- well, I've seen them shoot walking prisoners of war -- actually be shot. Or if you tried to get food which was thrown by the civilians to the walking military, the Filipino military, that not only endangered you, but the one who was giving the food or throwing the food to you...Well, those that they could catch, they'd just shoot them there.... If you could not keep up with the group in the Death March, rather than slow the Death March, they'd get rid of you by shooting you.... Oh, they bayoneted people, they shot people, and if they think that you were delaying the Death March, you're dead.
fall of the philippines3
Fall of the Philippines

Corregidor is the last island fortress in the Philippines to fall to the Japanese, May 6, 1942.

The Philippines now belong to the Japanese.

battle of midway2
Battle of Midway
  • In the first carrier battle of the war, the Battle of the Coral Sea, the U.S. stops the Japanese advance on Australia in May.
  • Admiral Yamamoto planned another surprise attack: this time for Midway.
  • He believed that if the Japanese could take Midway, they would have the Pacific in an “impenetrable fortress.”
battle of midway3
Battle of Midway
  • In May, the Navy intercepted Japanese communications confirming Japanese fleet movement toward Midway.
  • U.S. Admiral Nimitz prepared countermeasures, with an estimated date for the attack of June 4.
  • U.S. B-17s launched from Midway attacked the Japanese fleet on June 3, but inflicted little damage.
outcome of the battle of midway
Outcome of the Battle of Midway
  • The U.S. Navy inflicted a smashing defeat on the Japanese Navy.
  • The Japanese lost the four large carriers that had attacked Pearl Harbor, while the Americans only lost one carrier.
  • More importantly, the Japanese lost over one hundred trained pilots, who could not be replaced.
  • The Japanese offensive in the Pacific was derailed.
  • The balance of sea power in the Pacific shifted from the Japan to an equity between America and Japan.
  • Soon after the Battle of Midway the U.S. and their allies would take the offensive in the Pacific.

Source for Midway info:

  • U.S. production capability would be a crucial factor in bringing victory over the Axis.
almost march on washington 1941
(Almost) March on Washington 1941
  • Summer 1941, production is high, demand for labor
  • A. Philip Randolph organized workers in the Pullman company.
  • Planned a March on Washington demanding integration of the military and non-discrimination of workers in government contracts.
  • Did not integrate the military but FDR agreed that government contractors could not discriminate against blacks.
tuskegee airmen
Tuskegee Airmen
women needed too
Women needed, too!
war powers act 1941
War Powers Act 1941
  • President given broad powers over the economy.
  • Established the War Production Board (WPB)
    • Halted building construction
    • Halted production of consumer goods
    • Ordered massive industrial conversion from civilian to military production
conserving rationing
Conserving & Rationing
  • Office of Price Administration
    • Food
    • Gasoline
    • Rubber
women at work
Women at Work
  • The men went to war.
  • The women went to work.
every family had a personal interest
Every family had a personal interest.

Gold Star Banner

Blue Star Banner

debt taxes
Debt & Taxes
  • Paying for the war = Long term effects
  • War bill = $300,000,000,000+
  • President Roosevelt – raise taxes
  • Congress – borrow
  • New way to tax – payroll deductions
bombing of germany
Bombing of Germany
primary source
Primary Source:
  • Government Film: Memphis Belle
  • B-17 Flying Fortress
  • Appx. 10 minutes
pacific theater of operations pto
Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO)
  • Douglas MacArthur, Army-moving from New Guinea
  • Admiral Chester Nimitz, Navy- moving across Central Pacific
  • Converge to reclaim the Philippines and move on to assault Japan.

Admiral Chester Nimitz

General Douglas MacArthur



  • Marianas
  • Philippines – MacArthur returns as promised.
  • Iwo Jima
  • Okinawa – Bloodiest single campaign in the Pacific

Meeting of the Big Three in February 1945 at USSR’s Black Sea resort, Yalta.

  • Laid plans for post-war Europe.
roosevelt s two misconceptions
Roosevelt’s Two Misconceptions
  • 1. If the U.S. joined an international organization for peace, then the world would be secure.
  • 2. He thought he could trust Stalin.
    • Democratic elections in liberated European nations
    • USSR was destroying democracy in Eastern Europe
    • Stalin had agreed to join the effort against Japan when Germany was beaten.

Roosevelt dies 8 weeks later on April 12, 1945.

  • Vice President Harry S Truman becomes president.

April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide by cyanide.

  • May 7-8, 1945- Nazis surrender on both fronts
  • July 1945
  • The new big three meet at Potsdam to plan the conclusion of the war in the Pacific.
  • Stalin, Truman, Clement Attlee – Churchill was ousted as PM in Britain.
  • New kids on the block were naïve.

Stalin had puppet communist governments in the areas he had taken from Germany.

  • Truman was left telling Stalin to remember his promises.
  • Stalin: “Whoever occupies a territory imposes his own social system…”
  • Agreed on demanding Japan’s unconditional surrender.
the bomb
The Bomb
  • While at Potsdam, Truman received word that the Manhattan Project had been a success.
  • The United States now held the most powerful weapon ever invented.
  • Truman gave the Japanese an ultimatum: Surrender or face destruction.
v j day
V-J Day
  • The Japanese government did not respond. The cabinet met and had to have a unanimous decision. Most were in favor, but 3 were opposed to unconditional surrender.
  • August 9, 1945, the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
  • The Emperor, stepping out of his role as above politics, asked the government to surrender.
  • The Japanese surrendered on September 2.
postwar occupation
Postwar Occupation
  • MacArthur was in charge.
  • Goals of the occupation:
    • Prevent Japanese from aggression
    • Reform Japan into a democracy
postwar occupation1
Postwar Occupation
  • Six-year occupation
  • Warmongers removed from power
  • Suffrage granted to women
  • Government power increase in economic and social policy
  • Democratic constitution
ravages of war by the numbers
Ravages of War by the Numbers:
  • 50 million dead
  • Many more millions maimed
  • 292,000 American soldiers, sailors, airmen dead
  • Tens of thousands of U.S. civilians died in the effort to supply the war effort.