Chapter 4 Roots, bases, stems & other structural things - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 4 Roots, bases, stems & other structural things

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Chapter 4 Roots, bases, stems & other structural things
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Chapter 4 Roots, bases, stems & other structural things

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  1. Chapter 4Roots, bases, stems & other structural things Morphology Lane 333

  2. Roots • Some elements of the word are more central than others • Root: the central morpheme, or the key element to which others are added • Roots have a lexical (dictionary) meaning, but some (lingu, arrog) have a full meaning only when joined to other elements

  3. Exercise 4.1 identify the roots of the following words. hymns breakage insane majority outbreak linked renew boarder knowingly actions rediscover untainted

  4. Exercise 4.3 identify the morphemes which are used to form derived lexemes warmth passage accountable endanger neutralize hearty consultant preschool

  5. Affixes & the base • Affixes • not independent • added to other elements • not all affixes are lexical (also grammatical)

  6. The base • Base: whatever you can add affixes to • All roots are bases (but not vice versa) • can be a plain root (e.g. switch) • or more than one plain root (e.g. window-seat) • or a root + one or more affixes (e.g. ex-husband)

  7. The stem • Stem: what you add grammatical affixes to • a special kind of base • All stems are bases, but not all bases can be stems in English because some lexical categories (e.g. prepositions) don’t take grammatical affixes

  8. Summary • Root: morpheme in which the rest of the word is built • Base: any structure to which an affix may be added • Stem: any base to which a grammatical affix may be added • Affix (1): lexical affixes form separate dictionary words by being attached to bases (derivation) • Affix (2): Grammatical affixes add grammatical meanings to the meaning of their stems (inflection)

  9. Examples • crow base consisting of a single root • crows base consisting of a single root; stem+ gram. Affix • crowbar base consisting of two roots • crowbars stem+ gram. Affix • minority base consisting of root+ affix • gentlemanly base consisting of two roots+ lexical affix • southernmost base consisting of root+ lexical affix • deserted base consisting of a root; also a stem • Irish- American base consisting of two bases, each consisting of a root+ a lexical affix

  10. Exercise 4.8 which words consist entirely of roots and/or affixes which are bound morphemes? outgrow presently quicksilver bathrooms agriculture reinvent bricklayer sleepyhead

  11. Conversions • Conversions: pairs of words which belong to different lexical categories (e.g. drink, love, review)

  12. Compounds • Head: the most important element in a compound (e.g ‘bag’ in ‘handbag’; a kind of bag) • The head is of the same lexical category as the compound itself e.g.: pathway (noun) househunt (verb) headstrong (adj) • Dependant: the element in a compound word which depends on the head (e.g. hand)

  13. Compounds • Endocentric: having the centre inside (e.g. junkmail) • Exocentric: having the centre outside (e.g. Redeye)