Chapter 4: Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Acids and Bases. In 1884, Svante Arrhenius proposed these definitions acid: a substance that produces H 3 O + ions in aqueous solution base: a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Brønsted -Lowry Acids & Bases.
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Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases
A weak acid has always a strong conjugated base !!!
1. an acid can be positively charged, neutral, or negativelycharged; examples of each type are H3O+, H2CO3, and H2PO4-
2. a base can be negatively charged or neutral; examples are OH-, Cl-, and NH3
3. acids are classified a monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic depending on the number of protons each may give up; examples are HCl, H2CO3, and H3PO4
4. several molecules and ions appear in both the acid and conjugate base columns; that is, each can function as either an acid or a base
5. there is an inverse relationship between the strength of an acid and the strength of its conjugate base
acid dissociation constant
(pKa = -log10Ka)
Conformation of acyclic compounds:
Cis/Trans isomers in compounds with double bonds
Schematic diagram of a polarimeter
R,S Convention -> Arrangement of groups around a chiral atom
Carbon with highest oxidation state
(R) - Glyceraldehyde
(S) - Glyceraldehyde