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Roots, Stems, and Leaves. Biology 11. Organs Systems. Plants have 4 organ system 3 are vegetative organs Leaf, stem root 1 is reproductive Flower . Roots. Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from soil Anchor plants to ground Hold plant upright. Stems.

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Organs systems
Organs Systems

Plants have 4 organ system

  • 3 are vegetative organs

    • Leaf, stem root

  • 1 is reproductive

    • Flower


Roots
Roots

  • Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from soil

  • Anchor plants to ground

  • Hold plant upright


Stems
Stems

  • Can be thin and herbaceous or massive and woody

  • Provide structural support

  • Water and nutrient transport

  • Some stems for storage (ex. Potato is a tuber)


Leaves
Leaves

Function:

  • Large surface area for receiving sunlight

    • photosynthesis takes place in mesophyll

  • Covered in waxy cuticle


Stomata
Stomata

  • Small openings in leaf that open or close

    • Opening and closing is regulated by guard cells

  • Mainly found on the underside of leaves (for land plants)


  • Functions:

    • Open to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and water

    • Close to decrease water loss


Vascular tissue
Vascular Tissue

Xylem

  • Carries water and dissolved nutrients from roots to stems and leaves

  • Provides strength

  • Made of tracheid Cells

  • Functioning cells are dead


Phloem

  • Carry products of photosynthesis from one part to another

  • Main cells are sieve tube elements and companion cells

  • Functioning cells are alive


How water moves u p to the leaves
How Water Moves Up to the Leaves

  • Root Pressure

    • Roots absorb water that must move up

  • Capillary Action

    • Water movement opposes gravity in small tubes

    • adhesion (stick to side of tube) and cohesion (stick to each other) of water molecules

    • Transpiration from Leaves

      • evaporation of water causes the pulling of the next water molecule up to take place


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