Do Now!. Examine the “Archaeological Exercise” you received when you came in. On your index card, describe what is happening in the picture! HW: Read the Egyptian Creation Story and complete the questions. DO NOW!. Egyptian Civilization: A Long Haul. Egyptian Religion : An Overview.
Do Now! • Examine the “Archaeological Exercise” you received when you came in. • On your index card, describe what is happening in the picture! • HW: Read the Egyptian Creation Story and complete the questions
Egyptian Religion: An Overview • Traditional Polytheism:pray to benevolent gods for success; Pharaoh is god’s representative on earth 2. Moral Polytheism:proper moral conduct insures a good afterlife for all 3. Monotheism:makes a brief appearance & then disappears
Traditional Polytheism Ptah:god of craftsmen. Worshipped by skilled workers • Local Deities:Different cities & towns worshipped different gods. • Diversity:Different gods provided various services & protections. Hathor:goddess of love & joy. Local goddess of the town of Dendera Thoth:god of writing & knowledge. Worshipped by scribes
Traditional Polytheism: Combined Gods Amun: God of the elements Ra:God of the Sun Amun-Ra: a “super-god”of all creation. Worshipped across Egypt & considered the “god of the gods.”
The Temple of Amun-Ra at Karnak • This temple held a hypostyle hall: a great room with a ceiling supported by many columns. Each column had decorations honoring the gods and the pharaohs who built them. This construction type was unique to Egypt.
Polytheism: Pharaohs as Gods The Great Pyramid @ Giza • Built c. 2,589 BCE for Khufu • Construction time: c. 20 yrs • 2.3 million blocks of limestone & granite Inside the Pyramid: The pharaoh and his goods waited for transport to the afterlife.
Polytheism II: Pharaohs as Gods • Khufu ruled for roughly 63 years, spending 1/3 of that time on his tomb, the Great Pyramid. Khufu: Burial Chamber & Sarcophagus (his coffin) Khufu: Ra on Earth
Inference Time! What can you infer about ancient Egyptian religion from the facts below? Many gods received offerings from people on a daily basis. 30 Pharaohs built the Temple @ Karnak over a period of 1,500 years. Khufu spent 23 of his 63 years in power (37% of the time) building his tomb.
Moral Polytheism: Only the good live forever… The Book of the Dead: the gods judge the dead.
Scale Thoth The dead & Anubis Ammut The dead’s heart Feather of truth Osiris Isis & Nephthys The dead & Horus
Reaching the Afterlife: Procedures • Anubis weighs your heart against the feather of justice. • If your heart outweighs the feather (b/c it’s heavy with sin), Ammut eats your heart. Game over: you’re dead. • If your heart is lighter, Horus takes you to meet Osiris in the afterlife. You made it! Eternal life is yours!
Follow-up Question: How does the death ritual from the Book of the Dead exemplify “moral polytheism”?