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India and China . Early Civilizations in India Chapter 3 Section 1. The Impact of Geograph y. Mountains, Rivers and Plains Himalaya – Far north mountain range in India Ganges River – South of the Himalayas Indus River Valley – dry plateau that forms the backbone of modern day Pakistan

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india and china

India and China

Early Civilizations in India

Chapter 3 Section 1

the impact of geograph y
The Impact of Geography
  • Mountains, Rivers and Plains
    • Himalaya – Far north mountain range in India
    • Ganges River – South of the Himalayas
    • Indus River Valley – dry plateau that forms the backbone of modern day Pakistan
    • Deccan Plateau – hilly and dry in the interior
    • Eastern and Western Coasts are lush plains
  • Seasonal wind pattern
    • June through September winds come from the South and Southwest
    • October through February winds blow from the north to the northeast
indus valley civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
  • Harappa and MohenjoDaro
    • Cities were carefully planned
      • Main streets ran in a north south direction
      • Walled neighborhoods with narrow lanes separated the row of houses
      • Houses formed a grid pattern
      • Public wells
      • Bathrooms featured an advanced drainage system
        • Wastewater flowed out to drains located under the streets then was carried to sewage pits beyond the city walls
      • Chutes took household trash from houses to street level garbage bins
migration and interaction
Migration and Interaction
  • Indus River Valley Civilizations ending is a mystery
    • Gradual decay, floods, earthquakes, change in the course of the river
  • Arrival of the Aryans
    • Lived in tribal groups and had a strong warrior tradition
    • Gradually moved eastward across India and gradually took over the Indus River Valley people
migration and interaction1
Migration and Interaction
  • A New Way of Life
    • North – wheat, barley and rice
    • South – grain, vegetables, cotton, pepper, ginger and cinnamon
    • Writing
      • Sanskrit – Indo-European language
        • Vedas – early writings that tell of small kingdoms throughout India
migration and interaction2
Migration and Interaction
  • Daily Life in Ancient
    • Family was the basic unit in society
    • Grandparents, parents, and children lived under the same roof
    • Patriarchal
      • Oldest male had legal authority
      • Inherit property
    • Children
      • Marriages were arranged
        • Parents would support their daughters until marriage and then pay a dowry to the family of the man she married
migration and interaction3
Migration and Interaction
  • Daily Life
    • Suttee
      • Dead were placed on heaps of material called pyres which were set on fire
      • The wife was required to throw herself on her dead husband’s flaming pyre
      • If she did not she was held in disgrace
social class in ancient india
Social Class in Ancient India
  • Aryans believed Society was divided into 4 varnas
    • Top Level = Brahmins (priests)
    • 2nd Level = Kshatriyas (warriors)
    • 3rd Level = Vaisyas (commoners)
    • 4th Level = Sudras (peasants or servants)
    • 5th Level = Untouchables
  • Caste System
    • Born into a caste and it determined what occupation you could have, who to marry, and what groups they could socialize with
      • Lowest level in Indian society were the Untouchables who were given menial tasks
religions of india
Religions of India
  • Hinduism
    • Believed in the existence of a single force in the universe = Brahman
    • Yoga
      • Leave behind earthly life and join Brahman in a kind of dreamless sleep
    • Most ordinary Indians could not relate to this ideal and came to have a number of human like gods and goddesses
      • Brahma – the creator
      • Vishnu – the preserver
      • Shiva – the destroyer
religions of india1
Religions of India
  • Principles of Hinduism
    • Reincarnation
      • Rebirth
      • Gives hope to people especially those in the lower castes
    • Karma
      • “what goes around comes around”
      • Dharma
        • Requires people to do their duty which depends on their status in society
religions of india2
Religions of India
  • Buddhism
    • Siddhartha Gautama – founder of Buddhism
      • Raised in luxury and at age 16 he married a princess and began to raise a family
      • At age 20 he noticed people suffering from illness, death and old age
        • Decided to spend his life seeking the cure for human suffering
      • Practiced self denial but it took him very close to death
      • Turned to meditation and met enlightenment and his teachings became Buddhism
religion in india
Religion in India
  • Principles of Buddhism
    • Siddhartha denied the reality of the material world
      • Believed human sufferings were caused by their attachments to things in this world
    • Nirvana – ultimate reality
    • Four Noble Truths
      • Ordinary Life is full of suffering
      • This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves
      • The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals to see others as extensions of ourselves
      • The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path
religions of india3
Religions of India
  • Middle Path
    • Eightfold Path

1. Right view – know the 4 noble truths

2. Right intention – Need to know what we want

3. Right Speech – Speak truth and well of each other

4. Right Action – Do not: Kill, steal, like, unchaste, drugs or alcohol

5. Right Livelihood – Work that uplifts us and others

6. Right effort – Do not give up

7. Right Mindfulness – Keep our minds in control of our senses

8. Right Concentration – meditate to see the world in a new way