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India and China 3000 BC – AD 500
Chapter Objectives • Explain how geography influenced the development of civilizations in India and China • Identify characteristics of these civilizations • Explain political and social structures in these countries • Describe the role of religion • List the contributions of each civilization
Early Civilization in India The Land of India India’s First Civilization The Arrival of the Aryans Society in India Hinduism Buddhism
Lesson Essential Question • What were the main characteristics of Aryan civilization in India?
Graphic Organizer Hinduism Buddhism
The Land of India • The Indian subcontinent is composed of a number of core regions • Mountain ranges • River valleys • Dry interior plateau • Fertile coastal plains • The Himalayas, in the far north, are the highest mountains in the world • The Ganges River Valley, directly south of the Himalayas, if one of the chief regions of Indian culture • The Indus River Valley to the west is a relatively dry plateau that forms the backbone of modern day Pakistan • In ancient times, it enjoyed a more moderate climate and served as the cradle of Indian civilization
The Land of India (Cont) • The Deccan plateau lies south of India’s two main rivers, and extends from the Ganges Valley to the tip of India • The interior of the plateau is relatively hilly and dry • East and West Coast are lush plains • Most densely populated regions of India • Primary feature of India’s climate is the monsoon- a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia • Warm, moist air from southwest during the summer • Brings heavy rains which farmers depend on to grow crops • If rains come early or late, or too much or too little rain falls, crops are destroyed and thousands starve • Cold, dry air from northeast during the winter
India’s First Civilization • Emerged in river valleys between 3000 BC and 1500 BC • The valleys of the Indus River supported a flourishing civilization that extended from the Himalayas to the coast of the Arabian Sea • Advanced civilization flourished in two major cities for hundreds of years • Harappa • Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro • Both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had around 35,000-40,000 inhabitants at their heights • Well organized governments • Both cities were carefully planned • Main broad streets ran in a north-south direction • Crossed by smaller east-west roads • Large walled neighborhoods with narrow lanes separating the rows of houses • Buildings built of square mud bricks forming a mud pattern • Public works provided a regular supply of water • Bathrooms- advanced drainage system • Wastewater flowed out to drains located under the streets; carried to sewers outside city walls • Trash collected in bins
Think-Pair-Share • What evidence leads us to conclude there must have been well organized governments in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro? • They are carefully structured cities, with public water supplies, advanced drainage systems, wastewater carried to sewer pits, trash collected in garbage bins, planned neighborhoods, and buildings made from oven-baked bricks
Rulers and the Economy • Harappan rulers based their power on a belief in divine assistance • Religion and political power were closely linked • Royal palace and holy temple combined in the fortress • Economy based primarily on farming • Flooding of the Indus River every year provided rich soil • Also carried on extensive trading with Mesopotamian city-states • Much of trading was carried out by ship via the Persian Gulf
The Arrival of the Aryans • Arrived around 1500 BC from their original homeland of central Asia • Moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India • They conquered the Harappans and created a new Indian society based on Aryan culture and institutions • Nomadic people who excelled at the art of war • Moved throughout India until they controlled most of India
The Aryan Way of Life • Pastoral people with a strong warrior tradition • Gave up pastoral life for regular farming • Introduction of iron • Iron plow made it possible to clear the dense jungle • Irrigation • Developed first writing system, Sanskrit, by 1000 BC • Wrote down legends and religious chants and rituals • Early writing reveal India was a world of warring kingdoms and shifting alliances • Aryan leaders, rajas, carved out small states and fought each other • Seized women, cattle, and treasure
Society in Ancient India • The conquest by the Aryans had a lasting impact on Indian society • A set of social institutions and class divisions that has lasted to the present day, with minor changes, arose during this time period
The Caste System- Reading Activity • Read the section titled The Caste System on pages 75-76 • After reading, make a graphic organizer identifying and describing the different castes in Indian society.
The Family In Ancient India • Life was centered on family • 3 generations lived in same household- grandparents, parents, children • Patriarchal- oldest male held legal authority over entire family • Males superior- allowed to inherit property, serve as priests, educated • Divorce was usually not allowed • Man could take second wife if first not able to bear children • Children were important • Expected to take care of parents as they aged
The Family Life in Ancient India (Cont) • Marriages were arranged and common for young girls • Daughters were seen as an economic drain on their parents • The ritual of suttee is perhaps the best visual symbol of man’s dominance over women • Women required to throw themselves on the pyre of her burning husband
Hinduism • One of the most complex religions in the world • Developed over 3500 years ago (around 1500 BC) • No one founder • Told people to live moral lives • Many followers avoided violence • Many sacred texts • Believed in the existence of a single force in the universe, ultimate reality or God, Brahman • Duty of the individual self, to seek and know ultimate reality • Merge with Brahman after death
Hinduism (Cont) • Reincarnation- belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death • After many reincarnations, the soul reaches its final goal in a union with the Brahman • Karma- force generated by a person’s actions • Determines how the person will be reborn in the next life • What people do in their current lives determines what they will be in their next life • Also, a person’s current status is a result of that person’s actions in a past existence • The concept of karma is ruled by the dharma-divine law • Requires all people to do their duty • Duties vary depending on their societal status
Hinduism (Cont) • System of reincarnation provided a religious basis for the rigid class divisions in India • People on higher end of society would not have those priviledges if they were not deserving • Gave hope to those on the lower end of the scale • Developed the practice of yoga • Designed to lead to the union with the Brahman • Hundreds of deities in Hindu religion- 3 chief ones • Brahma- Creator • Vishnu- Preserver • Siva- Destroyer
Hinduism (Cont) • Many Hindu regard the multitude of gods simply as a different expression of the Brahman • However, the various gods and goddesses gave ordinary Indians a way to express their religious feelings • Hinduism is still the religion of the vast majority of Indian people
Buddhism • Founded in late 500’s BC by Siddhartha Gautama- the Buddha (“Enlightened One”) • Denied the reality of the material world • Believed physical surroundings were simply illusions • Pain, poverty, and sorrow caused by people’s attachment to material items • Achieving wisdom is a key step to achieving nirvana- or ultimate reality • Achieving nirvana led to a reunion with the Great World Soul • Based on the Four Noble Truths • Ordinary life is full of suffering • This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves • The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as extensions of ourselves • The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path
Buddhism (Cont) • The Middle Path- Eightfold Path • Right view • Right intention • Right speech • Right action • Right livelihood • Right effort • Right mindfulness • Right concentration
Buddhism (Cont) • Accepted the idea of reincarnation, but rejected the caste system • All humans could reach nirvana as a result of their behavior in this life • Rejected the multitude of gods that had become identified with Hinduism • Spread throughout India after the Buddha’s death • Built monasteries to promote his teaching and provide housing and training for monks • As Buddhism’s roots spread through Asia, it slowly declined in India
Exit Ticket • Using your notes and book, answer the following question. • What were the main characteristics of Aryan civilization in India?