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Survey of Statistical Methods. Wednesday, January 19, 2005. Group 1 Discussion points. Paths to Knowledge Personal experience Authority and/or consensus Intuition Common sense & tradition Rationalism & reasoning. Scientific ‘Norms’ Universalism Organized skepticism Communalism

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survey of statistical methods

Survey of Statistical Methods

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

group 1 discussion points
Group 1 Discussion points
  • Paths to Knowledge
    • Personal experience
    • Authority and/or consensus
    • Intuition
    • Common sense & tradition
    • Rationalism & reasoning
  • Scientific ‘Norms’
    • Universalism
    • Organized skepticism
    • Communalism
    • Disinterestedness
    • Honesty
  • Empirical Methods
    • Empiricism
    • Rationality
    • Rationalism
group 2 discussion points
Group 2 Discussion Points
  • Sources of Uncertainty:
    • Topical
    • Investigative
    • Methodological
      • Design
      • Internal
      • External
    • Statistical
      • Descriptive statistics
      • Inferential statistics
    • Interpretive
  • Research of any kind has three things in common that are both friend and foe:
    • Dealing with ignorance & uncertainty
    • Disputation and conflict within a framework shared by other researchers
    • Learning and discovery through errors
  • Kinds of uncertainty:
    • Distortion
      • Confusion
      • Inaccuracy
    • Incompleteness
      • Absence
      • Uncertainty
      • Probability
      • Ambiguity or vagueness
group 3 discussion points
Group 3 Discussion Points
  • Two common strategies in research:
    • Begin with data reduction and then enhance as much as necessary
    • Begin with data enhancement and then reduce as much as possible.
  • Quantifying or even counting should not be undertaken without first considering whether these are sensible given possible arguments to the contrary.
  • Counting

vs

  • Quantification
  • Data reduction

vs

  • Data enhancement
slide5

What you must know before conducting attempting any type of statistical analysis

  • What is the purpose of the research?
  • What type of research design is being used?
  • What variables are measured?
slide6

Hypotheses, Purposes, and Questions - Variations of the same thing….

Hypothesis

  • Children who were shown a video with mild violence were more aggressive on the playground than those who were shown a similar video without violence.

Purpose

  • The purpose was to explore the differences in aggressive playground behavior between children who were shown a video with mild violence vs. children who were shown a similar video without violence.

Question

  • What effect did watching a video with mild violence have on aggressive playground behavior in children?
overview of research designs
Quantitative

Research in which the results are analyzed and presented as quantities or numbers. Utilizes the laws of probability.

Qualitative

Research in which the results are trends or themes that are described in words.

Experimental

Researchers give treatments and observe to see if they caused changes in behavior.

Non-Experimental

Researchers do not give treatments. Create “treatment groups” based on pre-existing qualities.

Overview of Research Designs
slide8

Research Designs

Qualitative

Quantitative

1

2

Experimental

Non-Experimental

3

4

research designs
Research Designs

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Pre-Experimental
  • One-shot case study
  • One-group pre-post test
  • Static Group Comparison
  • True Experimental
  • Post-test only control group
  • Pre-post test control group
  • Solomon 4-group
  • Factorial Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental Designs
  • Interrupted Time Series
  • Equivalent Time Samples
  • Non-equivalent Control Group
  • Counterbalanced Design

Case Study

Experimental

Non-Experimental

slide10

Research Designs

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Pre-Experimental
  • True Experimental
  • Factorial Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental
  • Case Study

Experimental

-None-

Non-Experimental

slide11

Research Designs

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Survey
  • Epidemiology
  • Reliability/Validity
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Historical Research
  • Program Evaluation
  • Case Study
  • Pre-Experimental
  • True Experimental
  • Factorial Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental
  • Case Study

-None-

Experimental

Non-Experimental

slide12

Research Designs

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Phenomenological
  • Symbolic Interaction
  • Ethnography or Culture
  • Ethnomethodology
  • Case Study
  • Pre-Experimental
  • True Experimental
  • Factorial Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental
  • Case Study

-None-

Experimental

  • Survey
  • Epidemiology
  • Reliability/Validity
  • Meta Analysis
  • Historical Research
  • Program Evaluation
  • Case Study

Non-Experimental

slide13

Research Designs

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Pre-Experimental
  • True Experimental
  • Factorial Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental
  • Case Study

-None-

Experimental

  • Survey
  • Epidemiology
  • Reliability/Validity
  • Meta Analysis
  • Historical Research
  • Program Evaluation
  • Case Study
  • Phenomenological
  • Symbolic Interaction
  • Ethnography or Culture
  • Ethnomethodology
  • Case Study

Non-Experimental

effects of instructors clothing on college students evaluations of instruction
Effects of Instructors’ Clothing on College Students’ Evaluations of Instruction

Background Notes:

Two female and two male graduate students alternated the way they dressed while giving the same lectures to undergraduates in 12 sections of introductory psychology. The types of clothing were “formal professional” (i.e. suit and dress shoes), “casual professional” (i.e. skirt and sweater, or slacks and dark sports shirt), and “casual” (worn jeans, T-shirt, open flannel shirt, and athletic shoes). Among other things, students rated the guest lecturers on “competence” and “interesting presentation”.

how does a researcher decide what design to use

Ethics

HSR

Fallacy

Resources

Paradox

Tradition

Skill

Cost

How does a researcher decide what design to use?

Curiosity

Internal Validity

Report

Problem

Assumptions

Conclusions

Literature

Delimitations

Data Analysis

Hypotheses

Limitations

Data Collection

External Validity

Research Design

Subjects

Variables

assignment for friday
Assignment for Friday
  • Complete online homework assignment (linked on the Lecture Schedule page)
  • Download and read the material for Friday’s lab (linked on the Lecture Schedule page)
  • Meet in the CHS Computer Lab @ 8am