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Immune System Disorders. What is an allergy anyway?. Hypersensitivity Reactions. Response to antigens (allergens) leading to damage Require sensitizing dose(s). Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions. Involve IgE antibodies Localized: Hives or asthma from contact or inhaled antigens

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immune system disorders

Immune System Disorders

What is an allergy anyway?

hypersensitivity reactions
Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • Response to antigens (allergens) leading to damage
  • Require sensitizing dose(s)
type i anaphylactic reactions
Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions
  • Involve IgE antibodies
  • Localized: Hives or asthma from contact or inhaled antigens
  • Systemic: Shock from ingested or injected antigens

Figure 19.1a

type i anaphylactic reactions4
Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions
  • Skin testing
  • Desensitization

Figure 19.3

type ii cytotoxic reactions
Type II (Cytotoxic) Reactions
  • Involve IgG or IgM antibodies and complement
  • Complement activation causes cell lysis or damage by macrophages
type iii immune complex reactions
Type III (Immune Complex) Reactions
  • IgG antibodies and antigens form complexes that lodge in basement membranes.

Figure 19.6

type iv cell mediated reactions
Type IV (Cell-Mediated) Reactions
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivities due to TD cells
  • Cytokines attract macrophages and initiate tissue damage

Figure 19.8

autoimmune diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
  • Clonal deletion during fetal development ensures self-tolerance
  • Autoimmunity is loss of self-tolerance
autoimmune diseases11
Autoimmune Diseases
  • Type I — Due to antibodies against pathogens
  • Type II — Antibodies react with cell-surface antigens
  • Type III (Immune Complex) — IgM, IgG, complement immune complexes deposit in tissues
  • Type IV — Mediated by T cells
reactions related to the human leukocyte antigen hla complex
Reactions Related to the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex
  • Histocompatibility antigens: Self antigens on cell surfaces
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC): Genes encoding histocompatibility antigens
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex: MHC genes in humans
hla typing
HLA Typing

Figure 19.1

reactions to transplantation
Reactions to Transplantation
  • Transplants may be attacked by T cells, macrophages, and complement-fixing antibodies.
  • Transplants to privileged sites do not cause an immune response.
  • Stem cells may allow therapeutic cloning to avoid rejection.
grafts
Grafts
  • Autograft: Use of one's own tissue
  • Isograft: Use of identical twin's tissue
  • Allograft: Use of tissue from another person
  • Xenotransplantation product: Use of non-human tissue
  • Graft-versus-host disease can result from transplanted bone marrow that contains immunocompetent cells
immunosuppression prevents an immune response to transplanted tissues
Immunosuppression prevents an immune response to transplanted tissues
  • Cyclosporine suppresses IL-2
  • Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits T cell and B cell reproduction
  • Sirolimus blocks IL-2
immune deficiencies
Immune Deficiencies
  • Congenital: Due to defective or missing genes
    • Selective IgA immunodeficiency
    • Severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Acquired: Develop during an individual's life, due to drugs, cancers, infections
    • Artificial: Immunosuppression drugs
    • Natural: HIV infections
the immune system and cancer
The Immune System and Cancer
  • Cancer cells possess tumor-specific antigens
  • TC cells recognize and lyse cancer cells
  • Cancer cells may lack tumor antigens or kill TC cells

Figure 19.11

immunotherapy
Immunotherapy
  • Treatment of cancer using immunologic methods
  • Tumor necrosis factor, IL-2, and interferons may kill cancer cells
  • Immunotoxins link poisons with an monoclonal antibody directed at a tumor antigen
  • Vaccines contain tumor-specific antigens