DISORDERS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: ALLERGIES Your Immune System The organs involved with the immune system are the lymphoid organs, which affect growth, development, and the release of lymphocytes.
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The organs involved with the immune system are the lymphoid organs, which affect growth, development, and the release of lymphocytes.
The blood vessels and lymphatic vessels are important parts of the lymphoid organs, because they carry the lymphocytes to and from different areas in the body
Each lymphoid organ plays a role in the production and activation of lymphocytes. Lymphoid organs include: adenoids, tonsils, appendix, lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patches (lymph tissue in your small intestine), thymus
wheals on the thigh
Swelling of lips and
Can hives occur anywhere else?Around 1 in 3 people with hives can also have swelling of the tongue and throat. This is called angioedema, and is caused by similar swelling deeper in the tissues. Occasionally the swellings will occur inside the stomach and cause tummy pain or cramps.
Underneath the lining of the skin, gut, lungs, nose and eyes are mast cells. These are designed to kill worms and parasites. Mast cells are like "land-mines", and contain "bags" filled with irritant chemicals including histamine. When these are released in small amounts, they cause local itch and irritation. In larger amounts, they will cause fluid to leak out of blood vessels, resulting in swelling of the skin.
Allergic reactions to food, pain killers (such as aspirin or arthritis tablets like naproxen, diclofenac) or antibiotics can also trigger hives. Sometimes insect stings, food additives or preservatives can trigger hives
Anti B plasma AB’s
Anti A plasma AB’s
Can receive type A & O only
Can receive type B and O only
Innocuous antigens can cause type II hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals by binding to the surfaces of circulating blood cells
AB-mediated destruction of RBC (hemolytic anemia) or platelets (thrombocytopenia) is an uncommon side-effect associated with the intake of certain drugs such as the antibiotic penicillin, the anti-cardiac arrhythmia drug quinidine, or the antihypertensive agent methyldopa.
These are examples of type II hypersensitivity reactions in which the drug binds to the cell surface and serves as a target for anti-drug IgG antibodies that cause destruction of the cell.
The cell-bound antibody triggers clearance of the cell from the circulation, predominantly by tissue macrophages in the spleen, which bear Fc receptors
Thrombocytopenic purpura occurs when blood platelets, which are essential for clotting, are coated w/ drug molecules that function as haptens
If Ab’s develop against these haptens cause destruction of the platelets
In hemolytic anemia, the body may form AB’s against its own blood cells
Immune-caused destruction of WBC’s is called agranulocytosis
-Glomerulonephritis is the term used to describe a group of diseases that damage the part of the kidney that filters blood
-other terms used are nephritis and nephrotic syndrome
Enjoy your Christmas break, before it’s time to hustle and stress again!!