esm 228 environmental field methods winter 2008 n.
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ESM 228: Environmental Field Methods Winter 2008
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  1. ESM 228: Environmental Field MethodsWinter 2008 Instructor: Tim Robinson TA: José Constantine Lauren Bauer, Chris Helmer, Reni Keane-Dengel, Anne Middleton, Sheila Morrissey, Jenny Phillips

  2. The fun we had all quarter… • Visited local watersheds (Tecolote Creek, Bell Canyon, Carpentaria Creek, San Jose Creek, Santa Clara River, Ventura River, Santa Ynez River) • Conducted Field Measurements • Water Quality Parameters (DO, Temp, Conductivity, Nutrients, Flow) • Surveyed Stream Characteristics and Fish Barriers • Evaluated Steelhead Fish Passage • Macro Invertebrates and Periphyton Analysis

  3. Watershed Characterization Drainage Area 5.72 mi2 Tecolote Creek Drainage Area 6.11 mi2 Bell Canyon Creek

  4. Watershed Characterization

  5. Stream Gaging USGS Stream Gages Flow Meters HEC-RAS Rating Curves Pressure Transducers

  6. Used to: Generate a channel profile Determine stream stage for a given flow Key input variable: Manning’s n Limitation: Treats stream bed as a static condition HEC-RAS(Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System)

  7. Determine/calculate flow Are specific to each stream Can change over time (particularly during high flows) Rating Curves

  8. Storm Hydrographs Both watersheds are highly responsive to significant precipitation events

  9. Nutrient and Pathogen Testing • Nutrient testing was preformed using two methods • Profile Sampling; grab samples • Storm Sampling; time series • Pathogen testing was preformed at profile sampling locations

  10. Nutrient and Pathogen Testing • Profile Sampling • Nutrient and pathogen samples were taken from locations throughout each watershed to capture runoff from various land uses. • Chaparral • Agriculture • Residential

  11. Pathogen Testing

  12. Nutrient Profile Sampling

  13. Nutrient Profile Sampling

  14. Nutrient Storm Sampling

  15. Nutrient Storm Sampling During these two storms the flux of nitrate from Tecolote was more than 2x the flux from Bell Canyon

  16. Benthic Macroinvertebrates • Benthic macroinvertebrates are small aquatic organisms found in the bottom area of a water body • Very important part of the aquatic food chain • They are often used as indicators of watershed health

  17. Benthic Macroinvertebrates • Many differing types including: • Ephemeroptera (mayflies) • Plecoptera (stoneflies) • Tricoptera (caddisflies) • Diptera (aquatic flies) • Odonata (dragon and damsel flies) • Coleopteran (aquatic beetles) • Etc (Source: Cachuma Conservation Release Board, 2008)

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrates • Sampling benthic macroinvertebrates allows for the creation of an IBI to determine watershed health. • Measures of species richness, species composition, tolerance/intolerance, and functional feeding groups included in IBI. • Sampling follows Cal Fish and Game guidelines for specific location (NorCal, SoCal) /streams/assessment.htm (Source: Cachuma Conservation Release Board, 2008)

  19. Benthic Macroinvertebrates • Simple analysis preformed in Hilton Creek, Tecolote Creek, Zaca Lake, and a small stream below Zaca Lake • Tecolote Creek impaired compared to Hilton Creek • Highest diversity in Hilton Creek, lowest diversity in Zaca Lake

  20. Fish Passage Adapted from Fish Passage Evaluation at Stream Crossings, CA DFG

  21. Fish Passage A. Velocity too great B. Flow too low C. No resting pool below current D. Jump too high

  22. Fish Barriers: Tecolote Creek

  23. Characteristics of Fish-Friendly Crossings • Crossing width as wide as the active channel • Culvert passes 100yr storm flow at <100% of culvert height • Bottom buried • Natural bed material • Smooth water transition • No obvious turbulence • No excessive scour • Stable conditions up and downstream

  24. Fish Barriers: San José Creek Yeah, Jenny. There’s no way a steelhead could make that in low flow conditions… Wow Sheila, that seems like a big jump for a fish! Whatever, Sheila. You hate fish…

  25. Figure 11. Land use in Bell Canyon (right side) and Tecolote Canyon (left side). Photo source: Google Earth.

  26. T < 21 C, DO > 80% saturation Photo from Santa Barbara Auduban Society, by Craig Fusaro

  27. Thank You for Attending Questions? Comments?