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Research Based Instruction in Reading. Polly Bayrd, MA, LP. Best Practices for Mainstream Modifications for the LD Population. v. Reading is the key …. To all school based learning To general knowledge, spelling, writing abilities and vocabulary To love of learning

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research based instruction in reading

Research Based Instruction in Reading

Polly Bayrd, MA, LP

Best Practices for Mainstream

Modifications for the LD Population


reading is the key
Reading is the key …
  • To all school based learning
  • To general knowledge, spelling, writing abilities and vocabulary
  • To love of learning
  • To success in most academic and occupational fields
  • To a healthy self-concept
reading success is key
Reading Success is key …
  • Poor readers by end of first grade have lowered self-esteem and self-concept and motivation
  • Embarrassing even devastating to demonstrate this weakness in the classroom
  • “I would rather have a root canal than read”
it is imperative
It is Imperative …
  • Prevent reading failure
  • Prevent frustration
  • Allow flexibility of pacing
  • Avoid stigmatizing and comparing
  • Nurture a culture of acceptance
five pillars of reading instruction
Five Pillars of Reading Instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Text Comprehension
strategies for teaching ld students
Strategies for Teaching LD Students

Specific, directed, individualized, intensive

  • Direct instruction
  • Strategy instruction
  • Accurate assessment to monitor progress
  • Scaffolding
successful teachers of ld students
Successful Teachers of LD Students …
  • Break learning into small steps
  • Administer probes
  • Supply regular quality feedback
  • Use diagrams, graphics, and pictures
successful teachers of ld students8
Successful Teachers of LD Students …
  • Provide ample independent, intensive practice
  • Model instructional practices
  • Provide prompts of strategies to use
  • Engage students in process type questions: “How is that strategy working for you?”
  • Process in which students are given support
  • Strategies that allow the teacher to break down a task
  • Technique that is flexible and temporary
eight essential elements of scaffolding
Eight Essential Elements of Scaffolding
  • Pre-engagement with the student and the curriculum
  • Establish a shared goal
  • Actively diagnose student needs and understandings
  • Provide tailored assistance
elements of scaffolding
Elements of Scaffolding …
  • Maintain pursuit of the goal
  • Give feedback
  • Control for frustration and risk
  • Assist internalization, independence, and generalization to other contexts
scaffolding tips
Scaffolding Tips
  • Begin with what the student can do
  • Help students achieve success quickly –avoid frustration and “cycle of failure”
  • Help students to “be” like everyone else
  • Know when it is time to stop “Less is more” once mastery is demonstrated
  • Help students be independent when they demonstrate mastery
accommodations involving materials
Accommodations Involving Materials
  • Use a tape recorder
  • Clarify or simplify written directions
  • Present a small amount of work
  • Block out extraneous stimuli
  • Highlight essential information
accommodations involving materials14
Accommodations Involving Materials …
  • Locate place in consumable material
    • (Diagonal cut on corner of last page used)
  • Provide additional practice activities
  • Provide a glossary in content areas
  • Develop reading guides
accommodations involving interactive instruction
Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction
  • Use explicit teaching procedures
  • Repeat directions
  • Maintain daily routines
  • Provide a copy of lecture notes
  • Provide students with a graphic organizer
  • Use step by step instruction
accommodations involving interactive instruction16
Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction
  • Simultaneously combine verbal and visual information
  • Write key points or words on the chalkboard
  • Use balanced presentations and activities
  • Use mnemonic instruction
  • Emphasize daily review
accommodations involving student performance
Accommodations Involving Student Performance
  • Change response mode
  • Provide an outline of the lecture
  • Encourage use of graphic organizers
  • Place students close to the teacher
  • Encourage use of assignment books or calendars
  • Reduce copying by including information or activities on handouts or worksheets
  • Use cues to denote important items
accommodations involving student performance18
Accommodations Involving Student Performance …
  • Design hierarchical worksheets (easy-hard)
  • Allow use of instructional aids
  • Display work samples
  • Use peer mediated learning
  • Encourage note sharing
  • Use flexible work times
  • Provide additional practice
  • Use assignment substitutions or adjustments
five pillars of reading instruction19
Five Pillars of Reading Instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Text Comprehension
phonemic awareness
Phonemic Awareness
  • Ability to hear, identify and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words
  • Primary grade activity using rhymes and games
  • Auditory skill, not visual skill
  • A part of phonological awareness
two important phonemic awareness activities
Two Important Phonemic Awareness Activities
  • Phoneme Blending.
    • /d/ /o/ /g/ (used in decoding words)
  • Phoneme Segmentation
    • Break spoken word into separate phonemes
    • 4 sounds in truck /t/ /r/ /u/ /k/
    • Used in spelling word phonetically-
    • “Invented spelling” is OK
phonics instruction
Phonics Instruction
  • The Sound (phoneme) - symbol (Grapheme) relationship
  • Phonics vs. Whole Word debate
more on phonics instruction
More on Phonics Instruction
  • Phonics is a means to an end not an end of itself
  • Should be Part of a comprehensive reading program,
  • Most effective when early (K or first grade)
systematic and explicit phonics instruction
Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction …
  • Effective for children from various social and economic levels
  • Particularly beneficial for children who are having difficulty learning to read and are at risk for developing future reading problems
  • Must include ample opportunities to practice and review the relationships they are learning
reading fluency
Reading Fluency
  • The ability to read withaccuracy, and with an appropriate rate, expression, and phrasing.
  • Important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
  • Attention to fluency is often neglected in reading instruction.
why fluency is important
More fluentreaders focus their attention on making connections among the ideas in a text and between these ideas and their background knowledge. Therefore, they are able to focus on comprehension.

Less fluentreaders must focus their attention primarily on decoding and accessing the meaning of individual words. Therefore, they have little attention left for comprehending the text.

Why Fluency is Important
reading fluency27
Reading Fluency

If you don’t ride your bike

fast enough, you fall off.

automaticity fluency
Automaticity = Fluency
  • Automaticity refers only to accurate, speedy word recognition, not to reading with expression.
  • Necessary prerequisite for fluency in passage reading
  • LD students need work on this intermediate step
building automaticity in word reading
Building Automaticity in Word Reading
  • Prerequisite skill is word accuracy
  • Word sorts/games
  • Reading word lists
  • Timings on word lists
  • Start with words of one pattern
  • Move to word lists with multiple patterns
  • Goal 45-50 wpm with 2 or fewer errors
strategies for developing fluency
Strategies for Developing Fluency
  • Model fluent reading, then have students reread the text on own.
  • Have students repeatedly read passages aloud with guidance
  • Have students reread text that is reasonably easy (independent reading level)
  • Student-adult reading, choral reading, partner reading, tape-assisted reading and Reader’s Theater
select reading levels
Select Reading Levels

1. Independent Reading Level. Easy reading. (95% word accuracy)

2. Instructional Reading Level. Challenging but manageable for the reader. (90% word accuracy).

3. Frustration Reading Level. This is too hard for the reader. (less than 90% word accuracy)

select reading topic
Select Reading Topic
  • High interest
  • Fun
  • Nurture affinities
reader s theater
Reader’s Theater
  • Fun, motivating, meaningful, enjoyable
  • Easily adapted to whole class or small groups–without costumes or props
  • Practice ahead of time silently and aloud
  • Students do not memorize lines
  • Students “perform”
  • Prosody is reading with expression, with appropriate phrasing, with pitch, stress and emphasis.
  • Automatic word recognition may lead to accurate and effortless decoding but it stops short of the final goal including prosody.
Prosody …

Disfluent readers tend to read in a monotonous and choppy fashion with little or no expression and their phrasing is either word by word or involves awkward groupingofwords.

prosody cont
Prosody cont.

Fluent readers, on the other hand, integrate pitch, emphasis, and the appropriate use of phrasing in their reading. This occurs only as readers become aware of the connection between written and oral language. This indicates their understanding of what they have read.

dysfluency kid s view
Dysfluency: Kid’s View
  • I hate reading!
  • This is stupid!
  • I just seem to get stuck when I try to read a lot of the words in this chapter.
  • It takes me so long to read something.
  • Reading through this book takes so much of my energy, I can’t even think about what it means.
  • Pre-teaching of specific words improves vocabulary learning and reading comprehension
  • Use of reference aids
  • Use of context cues
  • Use of word parts –prefix, root word, suffix
text comprehension
Text Comprehension
  • Comprehension is the reason for reading
  • Systematic instruction in comprehension can help students understand what they read, remember what they read and communicate with others about what they read
  • Comprehension skills should be taught during primary grades and as long as students need it
what should be taught key comprehension strategies
What should be Taught:Key Comprehension Strategies
  • Monitoring comprehension
  • Using graphic and semantic organizers
  • Answering questions
  • Generating questions
  • Recognizing story structure (and other text structures)
  • Summarizing

CLICKS“This makes sense.”


“Am I remembering what I am reading?”

graphic organizer
Graphic Organizer
  • Visual representation of the elements of the thinking process
  • Way to strengthen memory
  • Common frame of reference for the student and teacher
strategies before reading
Brainstorm, cluster, web, fast-write, list




Predict meaning of new vocabulary


Set purpose

Strategies Before Reading
strategies during reading
Strategies During Reading
  • Adjust reading rate
  • Predict/support/confirm/adjust
  • Question
  • Self-correct
  • Monitor understanding
  • Reread
  • Read/pause/summarize
strategies after reading
Strategies After Reading
  • Confirm/adjust predictions
  • Retell
  • Skim and reread
  • Take notes
  • Make inferences
  • Reflect on reading
  • What do I KNOW?
  • What do I WANT to find out?
  • What did I LEARN?
csi comprehension strategy instruction55
Comprehension Monitoring

Graphic organizers

Listening actively

Mental imagery

Mnemonic instruction

Prior knowledge activation

Question answering

Question generating

Text structure


Multiple strategy instruction with and without reciprocal teaching

CSI: Comprehension Strategy Instruction
excellent reading teachers
Excellent Reading Teachers …
  • Understand reading and writing development, and believe that all children can learn to read and write
  • Continually assess children’s individual progress and relate reading instruction to children’s previous experience
  • Offer a variety of materials and texts for children to read.
excellent reading teachers57
Excellent Reading Teachers …
  • Know a variety of ways to teach reading, when to use each method, and how to combine the methods into an effective instructional program
  • Use flexible grouping strategies to tailor instruction to individual students
  • Are good reading coaches (provide help strategically)
excellent reading teachers58
Excellent Reading Teachers
  • Have strong content and pedagogical knowledge
  • Manage classrooms so there is a high rate of engagement
  • Use strong motivational strategies that encourage independent learning
  • Have high expectations for children’s learning
  • Help children who are having difficulty
recommendations for developing excellence in reading instruction
Recommendations for Developing Excellence in Reading Instruction
  • Teachers must view themselves as lifetime learners and continually strive to improve their practice.
  • Administrators must be instructional leaders who support teachers’ efforts to improve reading instruction.
recommendations for excellence
Recommendations for Excellence …
  • Teacher educators must provide both a solid knowledge base and extensive supervised practice to prepare excellent beginning reading teachers.
  • Legislators and policy makers must understand the complex role of the teacher in providing reading instruction and ensure that teachers have the resources and support they need.
recommendations excellence
Recommendations …excellence
  • Legislators and policy makers should not impose one-size-fits all mandates.
  • Parents, community members, and teachers must work in partnership to assure that children value reading and have many opportunities to read outside of school.