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Chapter 13. Cakes and Icings. Cakes. Are created from liquid batters with high fat and sugar contents. Ingredients are classified by function: Tougheners Tenderizers Moisteners Driers Leaveners Flavorings. Cake Mixing Methods. The goal of mixing cake batter is:

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Cakes and Icings

  • Are created from liquid batters with high fat and sugar contents.
  • Ingredients are classified by function:
    • Tougheners
    • Tenderizers
    • Moisteners
    • Driers
    • Leaveners
    • Flavorings
cake mixing methods
Cake Mixing Methods
  • The goal of mixing cake batter is:
    • to combine ingredients uniformly
    • incorporate air cells
    • develop proper texture
  • Cake Mixing Methods are divided into two categories:
    • High fat, whose structure relies on creamed fat and includes butter cakes and high-ratio cakes
    • Egg foam, whose structure relies on whipped eggs and includes genoise, spongecakes, angel food and chiffon cakes
  • Used for butter cakes & pound cakes.
  • The ingredients should be room temperature, approx 70°F (21°C).
  • Fat must be beaten until light & fluffy.
  • The eggs must be added in small portions, with each one fully absorbed before the next one is added.
  • The dry & liquid ingredients should be added alternatively to ensure the batter can absorb all of the liquid.

two stage
Two Stage
  • Used when = higher proportion of of sugar than flour by weight.
  • High-ratio emulsified shortening is used to help absorb the liquid.
  • Leavened by a chemical agent rather than use of whip.

genoise egg foam
Genoise Egg Foam
  • Whole eggs are whipped until light and fluffy with sugar.
  • No chemical leaveners.
  • Slightly warming the egg mixture helps improve the volume
  • Genoise with melted butter, will be more tender because they shorten gluten strands.
  • Dry and usually soaked with flavor: liqueur, sugar syrup.

  • Whip egg yolks and other ingredients.
  • Egg whites are whipped with portion of sugar to form stiff peaks & fold into batter.
  • Leavened with air but chemical leaveners can be added.
  • As a genoise, oil or melted butter can be added.

angel food
Angel Food
  • Made with a large quantity of egg whites.
  • Made in ungreased pans.
  • Does not have chemical leavener.
  • Contain no fat = low in calories.
  • Not frosted typically.
  • Topped with fruit, chocolate glaze or simple icing, whipped cream, etc.

  • Contains egg yolks and vegetable oil, increasing richness.
  • Baked in an ungreased pan.
  • Can be frosted with light butter cream or whip cream or topped with glaze.
  • Lemon and orange = most traditional.
  • Common to contain chocolate, nuts and other flavors.

specific gravity
Specific Gravity
  • The amount of air incorporated into a batter relates to the quality, volume and appearance of the finished cake.
    • Too little air make a cake with tight grain and low volume. Too much air and the grain may be coarse.
  • Specific gravity will indicate if a cake batter is properly mixed.
  • It is a measurement of the weight of a mixture in relation to the weight of water.
    • Weight of ingredient / weight of water = specific gravity
panning cake batter
Panning Cake Batter
  • Most pans must be greased or lined to prevent cakes from sticking.
  • Fill pans no more than one half to two thirds full.
baking and cooling
Baking and Cooling
  • Always preheat the oven before preparing the batter.
  • Test for doneness:
    • Appearance – light golden brown; edges pull away from sides of the pan.
    • Touch – Springs back when lightly pressed
    • Cake tester – Comes out clean when inserted in center of cake.
  • Generally allow a cake 10 to 15 minutes in its pan set on a cooling rack after taking it out of the oven.
  • All cakes should be left to cool away from drafts or air currents that might cause them to collapse.
  • Or frostings, are sweet decorative coatings used as filling between layers or, as coating over the top and sides of the cake.
  • There are several types:
    • Buttercream
    • Foam
    • Fudge
    • Fondant
    • Glaze
    • Royal icing
    • Ganache
assembling and decorating cakes
Assembling and Decorating Cakes
  • Before a cake can be decorated it must be assembled and coated with icing or frosting.
  • The goal is to fill and stack the cake layers evenly and apply an even coating of icing that is smooth and free of crumbs.
  • Consider the flavor, texture and color of the components used as well as the number of guests served when designing a cake and selecting the filling and icing.
cake decorating techniques
Cake Decorating Techniques
  • Side masking with nuts, crumbs or crushed cookies
  • Stencils – creating a design on top of a cake with confectioner’s sugar or cocoa powder.
  • Piping on icing in decorative patterns
    • Learning how to make a disposable icing cone from parchment-paper is a great time saver.
  • Covering cake with rolled fondant
storing cakes
Storing Cakes
  • Plain cake layers or sheets can be stored for 2 or 3 days at room temperature when well wrapped.
  • Iced or chilled cakes are usually refrigerated.
  • Any cake containing custard filling, mousse or whipped cream must be refrigerated.
  • Although cakes can be frozen with great success, icings and fillings do not freeze particularly well.
convenience products
Convenience Products
  • Packaged cake mixes are tremendous time savers.
  • Results are consistent, although usually softer and more cottony than scratch cakes.
  • Flavor also tends to be more artificial than scratch cakes.
  • Icings, glazing and toppings are available.
  • Icings are often exceedingly sweet and overpowered by artificial flavors and chemical preservatives.
  • The products save time and have consistent results but are more costly than scratch products.