Organic Reactions. Aldehydes and Ketones. Brody, Cole, Jessica and Shona. Predictions. Adehyde and H ydrogen = 1 ͦ alcohols K etones + Hydrogen = 2 ͦ alcohols. 1 ͦ alcohols + oxygen = Aldehyde & Water 2 ͦ alcohols + oxygen = ketone & water.
OrganicReactions Aldehydes and Ketones Brody, Cole, Jessica and Shona
Predictions • Adehydeand Hydrogen = 1 ͦ alcohols • Ketones+ Hydrogen = 2 ͦ alcohols 1 ͦ alcohols + oxygen = Aldehyde & Water 2 ͦ alcohols + oxygen = ketone & water 3 ͦ alcohols do not fully react *Reversible Reactions
Reactions Highly Polar *Highly soluble in water: polar end of aldehyde/ketone bonds with polar end of water molecule *Boiling Point : The boiling point is governed by the strengths of the intermolecular forces.
Practical and Industrial Uses • KETONES • -Warn of Danger ex. 2-heptanone (for insects) • -Food trail and sex pheromones affect the behaviors of many insects • -ex. 9-ketodecenoic acid (used by a honeybee queen to establish a new hive) • SMALLER ALDEHYDES • Formaldehyde(aq) : used as a antiseptic and disinfectant • -Trimmer is used to fumigate rooms against pests • Acetaldehyde: used in the synthesis of resins and dyes, also as a preservative • Trimmer is used as a hypnotic drugs • LARGER ALDEHYDES • -pleasant smell, used in perfumes and aromatherapy • ex. Benzaldehyde
Practical and Industrial Uses Methyl Ethyl Ketone -solvent for lacquers -degreasing -rubber and rubber cement -printing inks, paints -wood stains, varnishes, paint removers -cleaning solutions -catalyst KETONES -Warn of Danger ex. 2-heptanone (for insects) -Food trail and sex pheromones affect the behaviors of many insects -ex. 9-ketodecenoic acid (used by a honeybee queen to establish a new hive
Environmental Impact Formaldehyde -dissolve easy in water, eventually decomposes -Decomposes quickly in air about 24 hours -forms formic acid and CO, doesn’t bioaccumulate in plants or animals Chronic Effects on Animals -shortened life span -reproductive problems -lower fertility -change in appearance or behaviour. *High chronic toxicity to aquatic life -may cause cancer in rodents & birds *Transported in air, water and contaminated soil
Quiz Time ! Name one negative impact that ketones have on the environment A Primary Alcohol undergoing oxidization will result in _________ What do insects use ketones for? True or False: Aldehydes can have a pleasant smell What determines the boiling point of an aldehyde/ ketone