Organic Reactions . Alcohols & Ethers . Seana Adams. Types of Reactions . Alcohols: majority of reactions consist of oxidation or reduction Oxidation : loss of electrons -The carbon atom forms more bonds to oxygen atoms or fewer bonds to hydrogen atoms
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Alcohols & Ethers
Alcohols: majority of reactions consist of oxidation or reduction
Oxidation : loss of electrons
-The carbon atom forms more bonds to oxygen atoms or fewer bonds to hydrogen atoms
-Primary alcohols Aldehyde carboxylic acid - Secondary alcohols Ketone
Tertiary alcohols: resistant to oxidation because they have no H atoms attached to the oxygen bearing C
Reduction is the opposite: gain of electrons
Ethers: majority of reactions consist of condensation and hydrolysis
Condensation: Alcohol + Alcohol Ether + water
The two hydroxyl groups on both alcohols react to form water,
joining together two molecules and producing an ether
Hydrolysis: Ether + Water Alcohol + Alcohol
Water breaks up a molecule and forms two separate molecules
with hydroxyl functional groups . These reactions are
typically limited to primary alcohols.
Primary alcohol oxidation
Secondary alcohol oxidation
[o] oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, O3, KClO4, pyridiniumchlorochromate
Ethoxy ethane ethanol + ethanol
-solvent in many chemical processes
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Primary alcohol oxidation Secondary alcohol oxidation
Alcohol Aldehyde Carboxylic Acid Alcohol Ketone
Primary and secondary alcohol reduction Condensation
Aldehyde Primary alcohol Water is formed between 2 molecules
Ketone Secondary alcohol
Water separates 2 molecules
Water separates 2 molecules
1. What kind of alcohol cannot undergo oxidation or reduction reactions?
2. What are the products of this condensation reaction?
Ethanol + ethanol ?
3. When you oxidize butan-2-ol, what is the product?
4. Which organic reaction uses water to break apart molecules?
5. What catalyst was said to be the most frequent in condensation/hydrolysis reactions?
a)can be oxidized to an aldehyde
b)can be oxidized to a ketone
c)can be synthesized from the addition reaction of an alkane
d)is a secondary alcohol
e)is a tertiary alcohol
[E] is a tertiary alcohol