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Organic Reactions . Alcohols & Ethers . Seana Adams. Types of Reactions . Alcohols: majority of reactions consist of oxidation or reduction Oxidation : loss of electrons -The carbon atom forms more bonds to oxygen atoms or fewer bonds to hydrogen atoms

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organic reactions

Organic Reactions

Alcohols & Ethers

Seana Adams

types of reactions
Types of Reactions

Alcohols: majority of reactions consist of oxidation or reduction

Oxidation : loss of electrons

-The carbon atom forms more bonds to oxygen atoms or fewer bonds to hydrogen atoms

-Primary alcohols  Aldehyde  carboxylic acid - Secondary alcohols  Ketone

Tertiary alcohols: resistant to oxidation because they have no H atoms attached to the oxygen bearing C

Reduction is the opposite: gain of electrons

Ethers: majority of reactions consist of condensation and hydrolysis

reactions

Condensation: Alcohol + Alcohol  Ether + water

The two hydroxyl groups on both alcohols react to form water,

joining together two molecules and producing an ether

Hydrolysis: Ether + Water  Alcohol + Alcohol

Water breaks up a molecule and forms two separate molecules

with hydroxyl functional groups . These reactions are

typically limited to primary alcohols.

structural drawings
Structural Drawings

Primary alcohol oxidation

Secondary alcohol oxidation

Butan-1-ol  butanal

[o] oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, O3, KClO4, pyridiniumchlorochromate

structural drawings1
Structural Drawings

Condensation reaction

Hydrolysis reaction

Ethoxy ethane  ethanol + ethanol

Common

catalyst is

sulfuric

acid

practical or industrial uses
Practical or Industrial Uses

Alcohols

-automobile antifreeze

-fuel

-solvent in many chemical processes

-alcoholic beverages

-antiseptic liquid

Ethers

-anaesthetic

-fly labs- anaesthetise fruit flies so genetic students can study their inheritance patterns

-starter for diesel engines

-aerosol propellant

-solvent and plasticiser

environmental impact
Environmental Impact
  • Alcohols
  • Using ethanol instead of gasoline

has several key benefits

  • Ethanol produces lower carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions
  • Ethers
  • MTBE (Methyteriary butyl ether) is a

gasoline additive. Spillage and leakage

around gas stations have resulted in pollution

of ground water, which is why its use has

been greatly decreased

summary of reactions
Summary of Reactions

Primary alcohol oxidation Secondary alcohol oxidation

Alcohol  Aldehyde  Carboxylic Acid Alcohol Ketone

Primary and secondary alcohol reduction Condensation

Aldehyde Primary alcohol Water is formed between 2 molecules

Ketone  Secondary alcohol

Hydrolysis

Water separates 2 molecules

Water separates 2 molecules

interactive quiz
Interactive quiz

1. What kind of alcohol cannot undergo oxidation or reduction reactions?

TERTIARY ALCOHOLS

2. What are the products of this condensation reaction?

Ethanol + ethanol  ?

3. When you oxidize butan-2-ol, what is the product?

2-butanone

4. Which organic reaction uses water to break apart molecules?

HYDROLYSIS

5. What catalyst was said to be the most frequent in condensation/hydrolysis reactions?

SULFURIC ACID

slide9

7. The compound whose structure is shown below

a)can be oxidized to an aldehyde

b)can be oxidized to a ketone

c)can be synthesized from the addition reaction of an alkane

d)is a secondary alcohol

e)is a tertiary alcohol

[E] is a tertiary alcohol