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Third Generation Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Curtis A. Carver Jr., John M.D. Hill and Udo W. Pooch. Agenda. Introduction Background First Generation Adaptive Hypermedia Systems Second Generation AHS Third Generation AHS Multi-dimensional User Models Finely Grained Multimedia Adaptation

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Third generation adaptive hypermedia systems

Third Generation Adaptive Hypermedia Systems

Curtis A. Carver Jr., John M.D. Hill and Udo W. Pooch


  • Introduction

  • Background

    • First Generation Adaptive Hypermedia Systems

    • Second Generation AHS

  • Third Generation AHS

    • Multi-dimensional User Models

    • Finely Grained Multimedia Adaptation

    • Open Systems

    • Constructive hypermedia

    • Other Issues

  • Conclusion

First generation ahs
First Generation AHS

  • Period 1985-1993

  • Principally non-distributed adaptive systems

  • Limited adaptability through stereotype user models, limited use of adaptive techniques

  • Examples: EPIAIM, ITEM/IP, Hypadapter, ISIS-Tutor, MetaDoc, MetaDoc V

Isis tutor details
ISIS -Tutor Details

  • Frame-based presentation

  • Link Annotation

  • Information Hiding

Second generation ahs
Second Generation AHS

  • Period 1993-Present

  • Principally uses WWW as delivery mechanism - world-wide availability and platform independence

  • New capabilities added such as adaptive multimedia presentation, map adaptation, link sorting.

  • Existing adaptation techniques were refined for additional functionality.

  • User models became more robust.

  • Examples: AHA, ARNIE, AVANTI, Basar, CS383, Cameleon, ELM-ART, I-DOC, Interbook, KN-AHS, Media-Doc, WebWatcher, RATH

Elm art

  • Intelligent tutoring system on Lisp

  • Provides course adaptation through adaptive annotation and link sorting

  • Links are sorted so that the most similar to the link the user is currently on are presented first

  • Annotated as green, yellow, and red based on prerequisites

  • Extensive user feedback and highly interactive

Third generation ahs
Third Generation AHS

  • Construction ongoing

  • Multi-dimensional User Models

  • Finely Grained Multimedia Adaptation

  • Open AHS

  • Constructive hypermedia

  • Other Issues

Multi dimensional user models
Multi-Dimensional User Models

  • One dimensional and/or fixed dimensional weighting

    • AHA uses nodes visited

    • CS383 uses learning styles as the basis of the user model

  • Multi-dimensional

    • Expertise

    • User goals

    • User interests

    • Preferred learning style

  • AHS must maintain multi-dimensional user models where relative importance of dimensions changes over time

Multi dimensional user models research issues
Multi-Dimensional User ModelsResearch Issues

  • Need different presentation techniques to represent multi-dimensional user models to the user

  • Proper type and number of dimensions to measure

  • Techniques for dynamically adjusting importance of dimensions

    • How often do we change?

    • How do we inform the user?

Finely grained multimedia adaptation
Finely Grained Multimedia Adaptation

  • Provide a finer degree of adaptive granularity

  • Most AHS have focused on providing adaptivity through text only

  • Adapt more than just hypertext

    • Audio

    • Video

    • Graphics

Finer granularity research issues
Finer Granularity - Research Issues

  • Proper balance between dimension granularity and system performance

  • Techniques for the adaptation and presentation for media elements other than text

Open systems
Open Systems

  • Typically, adaptive systems are self-contained

  • Want to allow users to tunnel through the internal hyperspace boundary to gather additional information, while still controlling the effects of the context shift

  • However, the system must by able to detect the transition (and its causes) and monitor the users’ activities in the external hyperspace

  • With this information the system author can add additional information, remove useless information, and provide additional external links discovered by the users

Open ahs research issues
Open AHS - Research Issues

  • How to capture the transition

  • How to react to the external activities

  • How to ensure users don’t get lost

Constructive hypermedia
Constructive hypermedia

  • The most accurate user model is the one that users construct themselves

  • Users should be able to add material to the system

  • Research Issue:

    • Methods must be developed for assessing the impact and utility of user construction on the user and adapting the system appropriately

Other issues
Other Issues

  • Feedback

  • Ease of Authoring

  • Assessment of the effectiveness of AHS


  • Reviewed the development of adaptive hypermedia systems

  • Proposed several attributes for third-generation adaptive hypermedia systems

  • Research into these issues will bring us closer to reaching the full potential of adaptive hypermedia