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Multi-model Adaptive Spatial Hypermedia. Luis Francisco-Revilla Department of Computer Science Texas A&M University. 1. MASH. What is M ulti-model A daptive S patial H ypermedia?. 2. APPROACH. What were the challenges in creating MASH?. 3. SYSTEM. How was MASH instantiated?. 4.

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multi model adaptive spatial hypermedia

Multi-model Adaptive Spatial Hypermedia

Luis Francisco-RevillaDepartment of Computer Science Texas A&M University

slide2

1

MASH

What is Multi-model Adaptive Spatial Hypermedia?

2

APPROACH

What were the challenges in creating MASH?

3

SYSTEM

How was MASH instantiated?

4

EVALUATION

How effectively does the system function?

5

CONCLUSIONS

What were the lessons learned?

slide3

1

MASH

Hypermedia

Map-based

Hypermedia

Adaptive

Hypermedia

Multi-model Adaptive Hypermedia

Spatial

Hypermedia

Multi-model Adaptive

Spatial

Hypermedia

problem
Problem

HT

1

AH

MH

MAH

SH

Hypermedia often provides arigid presentationof the information

MASH

“Sometimes I want the link and sometimes I don’t”

“I think these two objects might be related”

adaptive hypermedia

HT

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Adaptive Hypermedia

1

Hypermedia

  • Personalize presentations
  • Adapt presentation to multiple aspects

Adaptive

Hypermedia

User Model

Task Model

Multi model Adaptive Hypermedia

Situation Model

Risk Model

multiple independent models

HT

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Multiple Independent Models

1

  • Complexity and scalability
    • Easier knowledge engineering
  • Portability and reutilization
    • Amortization of costs
  • Privacy and distribution
    • Control over personal models

Very

Risk

So-so

Not

Very

Competitor

So-so

Not

Not

So-so

Very

User

Not

So-so

Very

User

Competitor

Not

So-so

Very

Not

So-so

Very

Risk

spatial hypermedia

HT

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Hypermedia

Map based Hypermedia

Spatial Hypermedia

Spatial Hypermedia

1

  • There was a need to know the context
  • Due to their heavy use, maps became the primary interface

Aquanet

VKB

spatial hypermedia1

HT

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Spatial Hypermedia

1

  • Objects are not restricted to represent documents (e.g. objects may represent chunks of information within a document)

Navigational Hypertext

Spatial Hypertext

spatial hypermedia2

HT

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Spatial Hypermedia

1

  • Objects are not restricted to represent documents (e.g. objects may represent chunks of information within a document)

Navigational Hypertext

Spatial Hypertext

spatial hypermedia3

HT

1

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Spatial Hypermedia
  • Objects are not restricted to represent documents (e.g. objects may represent chunks of information within a document)

Navigational Hypertext

Spatial Hypertext

spatial hypermedia4
Spatial Hypermedia

HT

1

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

  • Users can interact with the information and seethe effects of altering its structure
  • Reflect “perceptually” vs. reflect “cognitively”
spatial hypermedia5
Spatial Hypermedia

HT

1

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Communication is via perceivable structures

User

Back-end

Processes

Systems use spatial parsersin order to develop a shared understanding of these structures

spatial hypermedia6

HT

AH

MH

MAH

SH

MASH

Spatial Hypermedia

1

  • In Web-based Spatial Hypermedia and Presentation Oriented Spatial Hypermedia, Readers and Authors are not the same person anymore
slide14

1

MASH

Hypermedia

Map-based

Hypermedia

Adaptive

Hypermedia

Multi-model Adaptive Hypermedia

Spatial

Hypermedia

Multi-model Adaptive

Spatial

Hypermedia

slide15

1

MASH

2

APPROACH

Conflicts

Classification

Suggestions

3

SYSTEM

4

EVALUATION

5

CONCLUSIONS

adaptation in spatial hypermedia

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

1

6

Adaptation in Spatial Hypermedia
  • Content
  • Relational
  • Spatial
suggestions

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Suggestions
  • Models provide suggestionsof how to adapt the information presentation

Model 1

Bold, Increase size

Object

suggestions1

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Suggestions
  • Models provide suggestions of how to adapt the information presentation

Model 1

Bold, Increase size

Object

Object

methods and techniques

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Model 1

Emphasize

Object

Methods and Techniques
  • Since Adaptive Hypermedia,high-level methodsare translated to low-level techniques
methods and techniques1

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Methods and Techniques
  • Since Adaptive Hypermedia,high-level methods are translated to low-level techniques

Model 1

Emphasize

Object

Emphasize = Bold, Increase size

In Spatial Hypermedia the number of techniques increases

Object

methods and techniques2

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Methods and Techniques
  • Since Adaptive Hypermedia,high-level methods are translated to low-level techniques

Model 1

Emphasize

Object

Emphasize = Change border color, Increase border width

In Spatial Hypermedia the number of techniques increases

Object

methods and techniques3

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Methods and Techniques
  • Since Adaptive Hypermedia,high-level methods are translated to low-level techniques

Model 1

Emphasize

Object

Emphasize = Change background color, Increase font size

In Spatial Hypermedia the number of techniques increases

Object

methods and techniques4

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Methods and Techniques

Suggestions specify the adaptation method, its strengthand the model’sconfidencein the suggestion

  • Since Adaptive Hypermedia,high-level methods are translated to low-level techniques

Model 1

Emphasize by 1.5; 0.80 confidence

Object

Emphasize = Change background color, Increase font size

In Spatial Hypermedia the number of techniques increases

Object

conflict management

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Conflict Management
  • Conflictsoccur when multiple adaptations cannot be simultaneously represented

Model 1

Model 2

Prevent from viewing

Emphasize

Object

?

conflict management1

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Conflict Management
  • Conflicts occur when multiple adaptations cannot be simultaneously represented

Model 1

Model 2

Prevent from viewing

Emphasize

Object

?

Manage conflicts:

  • Prevention
  • Detection
  • Resolution

Managing conflicts is more than resolving conflicts

conflict prevention

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Conflict Prevention
  • Augment medium expressiveness
  • Dynamically map high-level methods low-level techniques
  • Embrace ambiguity

Model 1

Emphasize

Emphasize  Increase font size

De-emphasize

De-emphasize  Fade out

Model 2

conflict detection

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Conflict Detection
  • Conflict propagation
  • Scope of conflicts
    • Spatial parser

It does not look like a list anymore!

Suggestion 1

Suggestion 2

Since the communication is via perceptible structures, when the structures break the communication breaks

Suggestion 1

Suggestion 2

Conflicts can propagate in many directions

conflict resolution

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

Conflict Resolution
  • Merge suggestions
  • Strategies:
    • Weighted average
    • Suggestion strength
    • Suggestion confidence
    • Model confidence
    • Heuristic best

Model 2:

Model 1:

de-emphasize

emphasize

Object

average suggestions

average suggestions

Object

conflict resolution1

2

Classification

APPROACH

Suggestions

Conflicts

emphasize

emphasize

emphasize

emphasize

Conflict Resolution
  • Determine mapping from adaptation methods to techniques
  • Balancing author and reader control
    • Specify mapping and resolution strategies

Object

Object

Object

Object

Object

slide30

1

MASH

2

APPROACH

3

SYSTEM

WARP

Process

Behaviors

4

EVALUATION

5

CONCLUSIONS

slide31

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

WARP
  • Multi-model Adaptive Spatial Hypermedia
  • Executes in a Web-browser
  • Novel features
    • Transclusion links
    • Personal readings
    • Annotations
    • Behaviors
demo 1

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Demo 1
  • Relationships:
    • Explicit, Implicit, Transclusion
    • Behaviors
  • Online News
    • Collections
  • Commercial Web-page
  • Transclusion, Import and Export
behaviors

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Behaviors
  • User actions and system adaptations can affect existing spatial structures
  • Spatial parser identifies structures
  • Behaviors can preserve spatial relationships
adaptation process 1

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Transformer

Analyzer

Parser

Platform

Adaptation Process (1)
  • Objects prior to adaptation
adaptation process 2

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

M1

M2

Transformer

Mn

Models

Analyzer

Parser

Platform

Adaptation Process (2)
  • Inference of implicit structures
adaptation process 3

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Transformer

Analyzer

Parser

Platform

M1

M2

Mn

Models

Adaptation Process (3)
  • Context inference and conflict prevention
adaptation process 4

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

M1

M2

Transformer

Mn

Analyzer

Models

Parser

Platform

Adaptation Process (4)
  • Suggestion of adaptations
adaptation process 5

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Transformer

Analyzer

Parser

Platform

M1

M2

Mn

Models

Adaptation Process (5)
  • Transformation and adaptations
adaptation process 6

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Conflict?

Transformer

M1

Analyzer

M2

Parser

Mn

Models

Platform

Adaptation Process (6)
  • Extended conflict detection
adaptation process 7

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Transformer

Analyzer

Parser

Platform

M1

M2

Alternatives

Alternatives

Mn

Models

Adaptation Process (7)
  • Alternative creation
adaptation process 8

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Transformer

Analyzer

Parser

M1

Platform

M2

OK?

OK?

Mn

Models

Adaptation Process (8)
  • Evaluation of alternatives
adaptation process 9

3

WARP

SYSTEM

Behaviors

Process

Transformer

Analyzer

Parser

Platform

Adaptation Process (9)
  • Final adaptation
slide43

1

MASH

2

APPROACH

3

SYSTEM

4

EVALUATION

Qualitative

Results

Quantitative

Results

Experiment

5

CONCLUSIONS

objectives

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Objectives

1

Comparative study

  • Non-adaptive spatial hypermedia
  • Multi-model adaptive spatial hypermedia

Investigate the effects of adaptation in the process of reading spatial hypermedia

Usability of the system

2

3

population

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Population
  • 16 participants
  • 18-40 years old
  • From Texas A&M University and Bryan/College Station community
  • Varying degrees of expertise (8 beginner, 8 advanced)
slide46

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Task
  • Web designers for a non-profit organization
  • Must author a Web page using a text editor in 90 minutes
  • Requirements and evaluation metrics for the Web page
  • Spatial hypertext about HTML as information support
evaluation procedure

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Time

Activity

15 minutes

Training in software tools (WARP and authoring environment)

5 minutes

Completing the computer and Web expertise questionnaire

20 minutes

Completing the HTML and XHTML questionnaire

90 minutes

Authoring Web page

10 minutes

Completing the questionnaire about use of the system

10 minutes

Interview

2:30 hours

Evaluation Procedure
initial interface not adapted

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Initial Interface (not adapted)
demo 2

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Demo 2
  • Adaptation of the experiment’s interface
user model initialization

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

User Model Initialization
initial interface adapted for beginner

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Initial interface (adapted for beginner)
initial interface adapted for advanced

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Initial Interface (adapted for advanced)
document design

Experiment

4

Qualitative

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Document Design
  • Content
    • Kennedy and Musciano“HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide” O’Reilley’s, 2002
  • Layout
    • Encapsulate topics and subtopics
    • Visually reflect the structure of the information
    • Limited dynamic behaviors
    • Adaptive behaviors
      • Multiple visual cues – size, font size, glow, alpha blur, zooming
qualitative results

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Qualitative Results
  • Gathered from observations, questionnaires, interviews and comments
  • Emergent reading strategies
  • Changes in reading behavior

Spatial layouts

Moving and rearranging

Informed link traversals

Collections and bookmarks

Adaptation and reading

spatial layouts

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Spatial Layouts
  • Easy navigation of large information spaces
  • Effective concept encapsulation
  • Reflect information structure

“I really like that I can see all of the chapters”

moving and rearranging

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Moving and Rearranging
  • …to indicate what is being read or what has been read
  • ..to indicate “what is more important”
  • …in order to “see both and compare”
  • …“for reference”
informed link traversal

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Informed Link Traversal
  • Informed link traversal
    • Browsing before committing to maximizing collections

“You are not clicking on a bunch of links that may or may not have what you are looking for”

collections and bookmarks

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Collections and Bookmarks
  • Maximizing sub-collections to bookmark sections
  • Minimizing collections as “I’m done with that!”
adaptation and reading

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative

Adaptation and Reading
  • Adaptation changed the way people read
  • Implementation guidelines:
    • Using multiple visual cues
    • Allow readers to maintain control of the process

“What red glow?”

quantitative results

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Quantitative Results
  • Assessments of the quality of the Web pages in regards to:
    • Content
    • Presentation
    • Overall
  • Scores computed according to pre-established metrics (provided to the users)
anova

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

ANOVA

Non-adaptive vs. Adaptive

  • Significantly better for the Adaptive case
  • Advanced users generated significantly better Web pages
  • Possible interaction

Novice vs. Advanced

Expertise-Adaptation Interaction

expertise and overall scores

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Expertise and Overall Scores
  • Expertise vs. overall scores in the non-adaptive case

Expertise = HTML knowledge * (1 + Previous knowledge)

expertise and overall scores1

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Expertise and Overall Scores
  • Expertise vs. overall scores in the adaptivecase

Expertise = HTML knowledge * (1 + Previous knowledge)

expertise and overall scores2

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Expertise and Overall Scores
  • Some clustering
  • No significant correlation between expertise and score

Expertise = HTML knowledge * (1 + Previous knowledge)

expertise and overall scores3

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Expertise and Overall Scores
  • Some clustering
  • No significant correlation between expertise and score

Expertise = HTML knowledge * (1 + Previous knowledge)

expertise and overall scores4

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Expertise and Overall Scores
  • Some clustering
  • No significant correlation between expertise and score

Expertise = HTML knowledge * (1 + Previous knowledge)

expertise and overall scores5

Experiment

4

Qualitative Results

EVALUATION

Quantitative Results

Expertise and Overall Scores
  • Some clustering
  • No significant correlation between expertise and score

Expertise = HTML knowledge * (1 + Previous knowledge)

slide68

1

MASH

2

APPROACH

3

SYSTEM

4

EVALUATION

5

CONCLUSIONS

Lessons

Learned

Future

Work

conclusions

5

Lessons learned

CONCLUSIONS

Future work

Conclusions

1

  • Spatial Hypermedia supports the navigation of very large information spaces
  • Adaptive Spatial Hypermedia enhances the users’ ability to find the right information
  • Adaptation in Spatial Hypermedia is more elaborate than in Navigational Hypermedia
  • Adaptation affects the process of readingin Spatial Hypermedia
  • The use multiple independent models in the adaptation process is feasible and facilitates aspects such as authoring, reuse and distribution

2

3

4

5

future work

5

Lessons learned

CONCLUSIONS

Future work

Future Work
  • CSCW implications
  • Mixed media and dynamic presentations
  • Interface for back-end systems:
    • Software engineering
    • Interface for digital libraries and search engines
  • Use machine learning in order to learn how to adjust automatically the adaptation parameters
broader interests

5

Lessons learned

CONCLUSIONS

Future work

Broader Interests

1

  • Adaptive visualization for content data analysis
  • Accessibility issues
  • Cross-cultural communication issues

2

3

questions
Questions?

www.csdl.tamu.edu/~l0f0954/research/WARP_research.html