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ENUM: history and current status and future Explanation of ENUM (RFC 2916). Patrik F ältström <paf@cisco.com> Corporate Consulting Engineer, Cisco Area Director, Applications Area , IETF. How many addresses do you have on your buissness card?. Patrik Fältström Consulting Engineer

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Enum history and current status and future explanation of enum rfc 2916

ENUM: history and current status and futureExplanation of ENUM (RFC 2916)

Patrik Fältström

<paf@cisco.com>

Corporate Consulting Engineer, Cisco

Area Director, Applications Area, IETF


Enum history and current status and future explanation of enum rfc 2916

How many addresses do you have on your buissness card?

Patrik Fältström

Consulting Engineer

Office of the CTO

Årstaängsvägen 31J

117 43 Stockholm

Sweden

Phone: +46-8-6859000

Direct: +46-8-6859131

Fax: +46-8-190424

Mobile: +46-70-6059051

Email: paf@cisco.com

URL: http://www.cisco.com

Patrik Fältström

Founder / Owner

Firma PAF

Ledåsa

273 71 Lövestad

Sweden

Email: info@paf.se

URL: http://paf.se

Patrik Fältström

Consulting Engineer

Office of the CTO

170 W Tasman Drive

San José, CA 95134

USA

Direct: +1-426-525-8509

Fax: +1-408-526-8766

Mobile: +46-70-6059051

Email: paf@cisco.com

URL: http://www.cisco.com

Patrik Fältström

Ledåsa

273 71 Lövestad

Sweden

Email: ledasa@paf.se

URL: http://alexandria.paf.se

Patrik Fältström

Area Director, Applications Area

IETF

Email: paf@cisco.com

URL: http://www.ietf.org


Today many addresses
Today, many addresses

tel:+46-8-971234

mailto:paf@example.com

tel:+46-706051234

sip:paf@example.com


Today
Today

  • Convergence

  • Telecom in Turmoil

  • The IP and PSTN worlds are about to collide


Where are we
Where are we?

  • There are substantial indicators that the market for IP Telephony is turning

    • Enterprise driven

    • 40% CAGR

    • IP-PBX sales are gaining steam …..

    • IP-Centrex has the attention of service providers


Buissnes case for voip
Buissnes case for VoIP

  • Enterprise want to leverage investment in IP networks

  • Cost Reduction

    • Toll Bypass

      • Still the #1 argument

      • Toll Charges $960.00 per line per year

    • Simplified Add Modify and Delete of Users

    • Single Wiring Harness

  • Rapid Service Creation

    • Applications created at the Edge using standard tools – XML

    • Time to market


Voip issues
VoIP Issues?

  • Protocol Wars are over …. SIP wins!

    • Every Copy of XP is SIP enabled

    • Enterprise .NET server will be a SIP proxy

    • Every major Enterprise Phone Vendor supports SIP

  • SIP Unifies Real-time Communications

    • Voice

    • Text [ Instant Messaging ]

    • Video

  • Quality of Service Issues now well understood

    • 802.1p Ethernet Priority Bit

    • Remove Hubs – Convert to 10/100 switches

    • Overprovision IP transport


With enum only one
With ENUM, only one

tel:+46-8-971234

mailto:paf@example.com

ENUM

tel:+46-706051234

tel:+46-706051234

sip:paf@example.com

Give this number to friends:

+46-8-971234


Enum in a nutshell
ENUM in a nutshell

  • take phone number

+46-8-6859131

  • turn into domain name

1.3.1.9.5.8.6.8.6.4.e164.arpa.

  • ask the DNS

mailto:paf@cisco.com

  • return list of URI’s

sip:paf@cisco.com


Enum use in more detail

DNS-Server

Gateway

Sip server

ENUM use in more detail

Query

1.3.1.9.5.8.6.8.6.4.e164.arpa.?

Response

sip:paf@cisco.com

“Call setup”

Dial

+4686859131

Sip

sip:paf@cisco.com


Example

DNS-Server

Example

Internet

PSTN

Calling party

Called party


Voip via sip to voip

DNS-Server

VoIP via SIP to VoIP

“ENUM”


Pstn via sip to voip

DNS-Server

PSTN via SIP to VoIP

“ENUM”


Step 1

The input to the

NAPTR algorithm

Step 1

  • Take an E.164 number and create a fully qualified domain name in a single highly defined and structured domain

  • +46-8-971234

  • +468971234

  • 4.3.2.1.7.9.8.6.4.e164.arpa.


Step 1 explanation
Step 1, Explanation

  • Each digit can become a definable and distributed “zone” in DNS terms

  • Delegation can (doesn’t have to) happen at every digit, including at last digit

  • Zones such as country codes, area codes or primary delegated blocks of numbers can be delegated as well as individual numbers

  • DNS defines authoritative name servers for NAPTR/service resource records


Step 2
Step 2

  • Lookup NAPTR RR’s in DNS, and apply NAPTR/ENUM algorithm

    4.3.2.1.7.9.8.6.4.e164.arpa.

    !^.*$!mailto:spam@paf.se!

    !^+46(.*)$!ldap://ldap.telco.se/cn=0\1!

  • Use rewrite rules using regular expressions which operate on the E.164 number (+468971234)


Regular expressions
Regular Expressions

  • For ENUM, the NAPTR regexp field may yield an (unchanged) URL

  • !<regexp>!<string>!

    • “Match <regexp> on original E.164, and apply rewrite rule <string>”

^ - Match beginning

$ - Match end

. - Match any character

.* - Match any number of any character

() - Grouping, \n in <string> is replaced with group number ‘n’ in <regexp>


Step 2 in detail
Step 2 in detail

  • $ORIGIN 4.3.2.1.7.9.8.6.4.e164.arpa.

  • IN NAPTR 10 10 ”U” ”mailto+E2U” ”!^.*$!mailto:spam@paf.se!”

  • IN NAPTR 20 10 ”U” ”ldap+E2U” ”!^+46(.*)$!ldap://ldap.telco.se/cn=0\1”

  • Note that no line break should be in the records


How is this used
How is this used?

PSTN

Telco

ISP

ENUM

IP

Internet


Convergence
Convergence...

PSTN

Telco

ISP

ENUM

IP

ASP

Internet

ISP

ASP≠ISP

Who pays how much to who for what?


Payment for ip
Payment for IP

PSTN

Telco

ISP

IP

ASP

Internet

ISP

Money moves

towards the center


Payment for service
Payment for Service

PSTN

Telco

ISP

IP

ASP

Internet

ISP

Money doesn’t route

well over the Internet


Payments
Payments

  • PSTN

    • Fixed fee

    • Termination fee (per minute charge) that follows the call

  • Email

    • Payment for IP

    • Payment for both incoming and outgoing

  • VoIP

    • Payment for IP

    • Payment for both incoming and outgoing

  • No termination fees for VoIP!


Avoid tromboning
Avoid Tromboning

PSTN

ISP

Internet

ISP

If there is no termination fee for VoIP,

originator want to know where final destination is


Voice extranet

ENUM

Voice Extranet

  • Phone numbers only routable over PSTN network

  • Enterprise Dialing plans cannot be accessed by Trading Partners

  • Connect “Friends and Family” Customers and Suppliers to Single Dialing plan E.164


Voice intranet

ENUM

Voice Intranet

  • Enterprises want to use unite global dialing plans across existing VPN and Intranet Links

  • ENUM unites them through common administration and access plan


Status done
Status (done)

  • RFC 2916 published in September 2000

  • The domain e164.arpa delegated to RIPE NCC

    • RIPE NCC appointed by the IAB according to RFC 2916

  • ITU SG2/WP1/2 liaison statement:

    • Member state can inform ITU on entry of numbers in DNS


Status done1
Status (done)

  • ENUM Nation-State Application Process Ratified in May 2002

  • In short:

    • Requests sent to RIPE NCC

    • RIPE NCC announces the request

      • On public mailing list

      • On web page (http://www.ripe.net/enum/)

      • To TSB via electronic mail

    • Waiting period 60 days

    • If no issues

      • Do delegation according to request

    • If there are issues

      • Send case to TSB for further investigation


Status july 1 2002
Status July 1, 2002

  • RFC 2916 published in September 2000

    • New version draft-ietf-enum-rfc2916bis

  • Delegations from e164.arpa

    • 44 (UK)

    • 43 (Austria)

    • 49 (Germany)

    • 87810 (Telekom Austria)

    • 991001 (Neustar)

  • Information at RIPE

    • http://www.ripe.net/enum/


National level
National Level

  • France issues request for comments from French Telecom Industry

  • Swedish regulator PTS issues ENUM roadmap and begins planning for Trials

  • Swiss regulator OFFCOM Beginning Industry consultations.

  • ETSI – Report on “Management of ENUM in Europe”

  • European Commission monitoring ongoing activities

  • Japan, USA and others:

    • Created Industry Forum


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Why ENUM?

    • Given E.164 number, what is the SIP URI?

    • Given E.164 number, what is email address?

  • What is ENUM not?

    • Routing mechanism

      • Still within scope of each protocol, i.e. ENUM is not a competitor with SIP

  • Why is ENUM important?

    • Convergence will happen

    • Now is the time to talk in a country on how to handle convergence in the larger picture


Enum history and current status and future explanation of enum rfc 2916

Patrik Fältström

paf@cisco.com