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LCD Monitors. IS 311 Group Presentation. Topics to be covered. Beatrice - CRT & LCD Monitor History Sici - LCDs Advantages & Disadvantages Gil - Current LCDs Jerry - Future Trends Julio - Buyer’s Guide. CRT & LCD Monitor History. How it all started. Monitor Overview.

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lcd monitors

LCD Monitors

IS 311 Group Presentation

topics to be covered
Topics to be covered
  • Beatrice - CRT & LCD Monitor History
  • Sici - LCDs Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Gil - Current LCDs
  • Jerry - Future Trends
  • Julio - Buyer’s Guide
crt lcd monitor history
CRT & LCD Monitor History

How it all started

monitor overview
Monitor Overview
  • The most-used output device on a computer.
  • Most desktop displays use a cathode ray tube (CRT).
  • Laptops use liquid crystal display (LCD), light-emitting diode (LED), and gas plasma or other image projection technology.
  • Monitors using LCD technologies are beginning to replace CRT.
lcd history
LCD History
  • Liquid crystals were first discovered in 1888 by Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer.
  • Melt cholesterol-like substance.
  • When cooled, the liquid turned blue before finally crystallizing.
  • RCA made the first experimental LCD in (1968).
  • Manufacturers have been developing creative variations and improvements since on LCDs.
what is being used today
What is Being Used Today?
  • The most popular display today remains CRT.
  • It has been available for more than 70 years.
  • CRTs:
    • Vivid colors and detailed images and text.
    • Cost less than LCD monitors.
    • Continue to evolve.
lcd market trend
LCD Market Trend
  • Market for flat screen LCDs grew rapidly during the ‘90s.
  • Huge success of the laptop computer.
  • It has still been slow in matching the market share of the CRT.
  • Color LCDs hit the market in the early ‘90s.
  • Has only now become popular enough for vendors to mass-produce.
from crt to lcd
From CRT to LCD
  • CRT
    • Bulky, heavy, use vacuum tube technology.
    • Using technology that was developed in the 19th century.
  • LCD
    • First LCD laptop monitors were very small due to manufacturing costs.
    • Light, sleek, energy-efficient, have sharp picture.
how monitors work
How Monitors Work
  • Most use a cathode-ray tube as a display device.
  • CRT: Glass tube that is narrow at one end and opens to a flat screen at the other end.
  • Narrow end contains electron guns.
    • Single gun for monochrome and three guns for color.
    • Display screen is covered with tiny phosphor dots that emit light when struck by the electron gun.
monitor classifications
Monitor Classifications
  • Monochrome: Display two colors, one for the background and one for the foreground.
  • Gray-Scale: A special type of monochrome monitor capable of displaying different shades of gray.
  • Color: Can display anywhere from 16 to over 1 million different colors. Sometimes called RGB monitors.
monitor quality and resolution
Monitor Quality and Resolution


  • Manufacturers describe quality by dot pitch.
  • Smaller dot pitches mean pixels are closely spaced which will yield a sharper image.
  • Most monitors have dot pitches that range from 0.22mm to 0.39mm.


  • Indicates how densely packed the pixels are.
  • Most modern monitors can display 1024x768 pixels.
  • High end models can display 1280x1024.
lcd technology
LCD Technology
  • Used for displays in notebooks, small computers, pagers, phones and other instruments.
  • Uses a combination of fluorescent-based backlight, color filters, transistors, and liquid crystal to create and illuminate images.
  • Until recently, was only used on notebook computers and other portable devices.
  • In 1997, manufactures began to offer full size LCD monitors as alternatives to CRT monitors.
ibm advances in display technology
IBM Advances inDisplay Technology
  • In 1981, IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) display, able to display 4 colors and max resolution of 320x200.
  • In 1984, Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) display, able to display 16 colors and resolution of 640x350.
ibm advances in display technology cont
IBM Advances in Display Technology (cont.)
  • In 1987, Video Graphics Array (VGA) display.
    • Most computers today support the VGA standard.
  • In 1990, Extended Graphics Array (XGA) display, capable of resolutions 800x600 in true color ( 16.8 million colors) and 1024x768 in 65,536 colors.
pre ibm

Apple II

  • Released in 1977
  • First true “personal computer”
  • Based on the Apple I design with some additions
    • Plastic case
    • Able to display color graphics
  • Able to display 6 colors at 280x192 resolution.
pre ibm cont
Pre-IBM (cont.)


  • Developed in late 1970s by Radio Shack.
  • First product in store history to fetch more than $500.
  • Monitor was basically an RCA TV with the tuner removed.
  • Became a direct competitor to the Apple computer.
heath desktop
Heath Desktop
  • One of the first computers designed as complete desktop machines.
  • Included monitor, floppy disks and keyboard.
  • Was eventually bought by Zenith.
ibm pc 1981
IBM PC-1981
  • IBM’s 5150 model introduced in 1981.
  • The PC featured a 5-MHz Intel processor, 18K of memory and an optional color monitor.
  • Starting price: $1,565
advantages of lcds
Advantages of LCDs
  • Physical Size
    • Compact and Lightweight
    • Space saving
    • Can be mounted on a wall or panel
advantages of lcds25
Advantages of LCDs
  • Display Size
    • Available at comparable in screen size as traditional CRT
    • Shown on the next slide, a 12.1" LCD display (left) has only a slightly smaller viewing area than a typical 14" CRT monitor. Newer, larger LCD monitors are also appearing that have 15", 17", and even larger screen sizes that are comparable to the largest CRT monitors. (One thing to note is that LCD monitors are typically sized by their actual viewable diagonal measurement, but CRTs typically are not.)
advantages of lcds27
Advantages of LCDs
  • Power Consumption and Radiation Emission
    • Consume less energy and more durable
      • A typical CRT losses approximately 50% of its brightness after 10,000 hours. An LCD bulb will maintain its brightness anywhere from 25,000 to 50,000 hours.
      • LCD consumes fewer watts than a CRT. LCD will use an average 30 watts compared to 120 watts for the CRT.
      • Can reduce electric bill by 40-85%.
      • Uses a combination of fluorescent-based backlight, color filters, transistors, and liquid crystal to create and illuminate images. It blocks light rather emit light
advantages of lcds28
Advantages of LCDs
  • Power Consumption and Radiation Emission
    • Doest not emit Radiation
    • Not subject to Electromagnetic Interference
advantages of lcds29
Advantages of LCDs
  • Viewing
    • Cause less eyestrain
    • Does not flicker or glare

(Source: Dailey News – June 2, 2002,,,

advantages of crt
Advantages of CRT
  • Color
    • Most are capable of displaying unlimited colors.
  • Resolution
    • Multiple video Resolutions.
advantages of crt31
Advantages of CRT
  • Response Time
    • Faster response time. Critical to people who watch videos or play games on their PC’s.
    • The fastest LCD’s offer a response time of about 25 milliseconds as apposed to CRT’s that have a response time of about 13 milliseconds.
advantages of crt32
Advantages of CRT
  • Viewing Angle
    • Look @ a very wide angle


disadvantages of lcds
Disadvantages of LCDs
  • Resolution
      • Displays Native Resolutions (Resolution that it displays best)
  • Viewing Angle
      • Smaller, needed to be viewed more directly from the front.
      • From the side the images on an LCD screen can seem to disappear, or invert colors.
      • Newer displays that are coming out have a wider viewing angle so this is not as much of an issue as it has been in the past.
disadvantages of lcds34
Disadvantages of LCDs
  • Price
    • Upfront cost it is more costly but long-term cost but will conserve energy in the long run.
    • The energy savings may not be much for an individual use, but for a corporate office where 50 displays or more are in use, the energy savings might be more of an issue.
disadvantages of lcds35
Disadvantages of LCDs
  • Installation
    • Need a plug interface to connect to the computer.
    • Some require a special digital plug-interface in order to work .
    • Problem: is that this plug is not available on most computers, so another video card or adapter must be purchased to plug these LCD monitors into the computer.
disadvantages of lcds36
Disadvantages of LCDs
  • Response Time
    • It is much slower. The delay can cause a ghosting effect on images it displays.


disadvantages of crts
Disadvantages of CRTs
  • Physical size
    • Takes more desktop space.


disadvantages of crts38
Disadvantages of CRTs
  • Power Consumption and Radiation Emission
    • Consumes more energy
    • Emits harmful radiation. The metal shield behind the glass of your monitor protects your body from a flood of radiation.
    • It holds a dangerous electrical charge even after turned off and can last up to several years and be hazardous and even deadly to anyone who opens a CRT monitor casing.
    • Know to cause fires due to electrical malfunctions and excessive heat if the ventilation holes are accidentally covered up.


current lcd s


Current Technology and Trends

business aspect
Business Aspect
  • Reasons for a sensitive market:

I. Price sensitive demand – As price drops

slightly sales go up sharply.

II. Long time for production facilities to


recent history
Recent History
  • 1999 – Very high demand for LCD
  • 2000 – Crash of computer market causes


  • Prices are slashed.
average 17 lcd monitor street price


Average 17” LCD Monitor Street price

Average Price

1Q 2001


2Q 2001


3Q 2001


4Q 2001


1Q 2002


2Q 2002


3Q 2002


4Q 2002


technology aspect
Technology Aspect
  • 1. Display addressing.
  • 2. Analog VS digital signal handling.
  • 3. Display Uniformity and Viewing Angle .
active vs passive display
Active VS. Passive Display

Passive Display

Active Display

analog vs digital signal handling
Analog VS Digital signal handling
  • On most graphic card signal goes through DAC (digital to analog converter) to convert to Analog signal.
  • LCD must convert the signal back to digital to determine which pixel to light.
  • If conversion has error the result is "pixel jitter", in which the image seems to shimmer or move.
improved signal handling
Improved Signal Handling
  • 1. DVI (digital video interface) standard

was adopted.

  • i. DVI handles both analog and digital

signals with separate connectors

  • 2. controlling circuitry became substantially better in a very short time.
display uniformity
Display Uniformity


  • Early LCD backlight wasn’t uniform and “hot spots” were created.
  • Display manufacturers developed more sophisticated diffusing materials.
viewing angles
Viewing Angles
  • Improving Viewing angels can be done by changing cell design.
  • Three different cell designs.

1. Vertical alignment (VA).

2. In-plane switching (IPS).

3. Multi-domain.

lcd future trends51
LCD Future Trends
  • Short & Long Term Prices
  • 3 Important Ergonomic Features
  • LCD Monitor Quality
  • New Technologies
lcd future trends52
LCD Future Trends
  • Lower LCD Prices in the Short Term
    • The Dock Works Strike
    • The Slow Economy
    • More Factories Online
lcd future trends53
LCD Future Trends
  • Lower Prices in the Long-Term
    • Calculators, CRTs, VCRs and DVD Players were all very expensive at first
    • They now sell at lower prices because of the laws of supply and demand
    • What do they have in common with LCDs?
  • The are all electronic devices
  • So if the laws of supply and demand continue to apply, LCDs will sell for less in the long-term
lcd future trends54
LCD Future Trends
  • Lower Prices in Long-Term (continued)
    • Example of an LCD going down in price
      • IBMs T220 LCD monitor cost about $50,000 when it first came out
      • Oct 2001 – it costs: $22,000
      • Dec 2001 – it costs: $15,999
      • May 2002 – it costs: $8,400 (T221)
lcd future trends55
LCD Future Trends
  • Three Important Ergonomic Features
    • Large Viewing Angles
      • All LCDs approaching 170° both horizontal & vertical
    • Minimal Reflection and Glare
      • Sharp’s AGLR screen coating which forms a quarter-wavelength filter that cancels reflection rather than diffusing it as other do.
    • Thin Bezels
      • When working with multiple monitors, your eyes don’t jump past wide gaps – thus less eye strain
lcd future trends56
LCD Future Trends

A workstation where all three of these ergonomic features are useful

lcd future trends57
LCD Future Trends
  • LCD Monitor Quality
    • Backlights
      • The only thing that can wear out
      • There are more LCDs with 50,000 hour life spans
    • Zero-Voltage Black
      • lessens impact of non-functioning subpixals
lcd future trends58
LCD Future Trends
  • New Technologies
    • On-Glass Circuitry unveiled Oct. 22, 2002
      • The new screens use Sharp’s CGS (continuous grain silicon)
      • Microprocessor circuitry applied directly on the glass, enabling it to function like a computer
      • Produces ultra fine resolutions
lcd future trends59
LCD Future Trends
  • New Technologies (continued)
    • ThinCRTs from Candescent Technologies
      • quarter-inch thin form factor: a "thin CRT."
      • Thousands of emitters instead of a single large cathode tube
      • Has the best of both CRTs and LCDs
lcd future trends60
LCD Future Trends
  • ThinCRT from Candescent Technologies
buyer s guide to lcd monitors
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • What to consider when buying a LCD monitor
    • What applications are going to be used
    • How much room you have on your desk
    • How much space you need on a virtual desktop
    • How much you want to spend
buyer s guide to lcd monitors62
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Key features or things to look for when deciding what to buy and how much to spend
    • Native Resolution
      • LCD uses a matrix of cells to display its image, causing it to have a fixed or native resolution at which the display looks best
buyer s guide to lcd monitors63
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Viewing angles
    • indicates how you can move to the sides or below the center of the screen before image is being displayed
    • an angle of 160 degrees is recommended
  • Dot Pitch
    • another indicator of image quality
    • the smaller the better; more expensive
buyer s guide to lcd monitors64
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Contrast ratio
    • is the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black that an LCD can produce
    • helps determine how rich the color will be in on-screen images
    • recommend a contrast ratio of 300:1 or better
buyer s guide to lcd monitors65
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Digital vs. Analog
    • if you have a graphics card with a digital video-out, choose LCD that has digital input
    • image will be clearer because it won’t have to convert from analog to digital and back and forth
buyer s guide to lcd monitors66
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Prices
    • $200 - $500 range: panel size – 15 inches; native resolution – 120/100 to 140/120 degrees; contrast ratio – 200:1 to 300:1
    • $500 - $800: panel size – 15 to 17 inches; native resolution – 120/100 to 140/120 degrees; contrast ratio – 300:1 to 350:1
    • $800 and up: panel size – 17 to 19 inches; native resolution – 150/140 to 170/170 degrees; contrast ratio – 300:1 to 400:1
buyer s guide to lcd monitors67
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Buying Tips
    • Stick to 15 inch monitors
      • balances screen size and price together well
      • Cheapest
    • Look for a wide viewing angle
      • good for making presentations and working with partners
      • indicates a higher quality panel with better brightness and color effectiveness
      • less tendency to leave trails on screen
buyer s guide to lcd monitors68
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Buying Tips
    • Try before you buy
      • actually looking at your desired monitor is always best
      • do not buy online or by mail unless the seller has a return policy
buyer s guide to lcd monitors69
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Comparison with CRT buying tips
    • Stick with a 17 inch monitor
      • is big enough and doesn’t take up too much space
      • is cheaper
      • if you work with allot of graphics and image editing, go with the $300-$400 19 inch CRT’s
buyer s guide to lcd monitors70
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Comparison with CRT buying tips
    • Need to consider power cost
      • uses more power than LCD monitors
      • can find low power CRT monitors that have a TCO’99 seal
    • Do not throw away CRT monitors
      • contain large amounts of toxins and lead that destroy soil and water
      • Recycle
buyer s guide to lcd monitors71
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Where To Buy
    • Electronic stores (reasonable prices)
      • Fry’s Electronics, Circuit City, Compaq, Best Buy
    • Websites – low prices, but can’t see what you are buying
buyer s guide to lcd monitors72
Buyer’s Guide To LCD Monitors
  • Conclusion
    • Prices have been falling over the past two years
      • more affordable for consumers
    • Key features and buying tips mentioned should lead consumers in purchasing the right LCD monitor for the lowest price