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The New Deal and the Second New Deal AP Ch. 25B (814-833) The student will understand FDR’s response to the Great Depression, specifically the 1 st 100 Days, critics of the New Deal, and he 2 nd New Deal. "Do something. And when you have done that something, if it works, do it
The New Deal and the Second New Deal AP Ch. 25B (814-833) The student will understand FDR’s response to the Great Depression, specifically the 1st 100 Days, critics of the New Deal, and he 2ndNew Deal.
"Do something. And when you have done that something, if it works, do it some more. And if it does not work, then do something else." --FDR
1st inaugural address: March 4, 1933 “This is a day of national consecration, and I am certain that my fellow- Americans expect that on my induction into the Presidency I will address them with a candor and a decision which the present situation of our nation impels. This is pre-eminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from
honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So first of all let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear. . . is fear itself. . . nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.” Speech located at historychannel.com
I.FDR A. Fought the depression with business-govt. cooperation and pump-priming, subsidized crop reduction, and short-term direct relief for the jobless Fireside chats B. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt advised her husband, promoted social reform, and acted as observer for husband
Eleanor Roosevelt: worked for public housing legislation, state government reform, birth control, and better working conditions for women.
1st Hundred Day Legislation • March 9: Emergency Banking Act • March 20: Economy Act • March 31: Civilian Conservation Corps established • April 19: End of the gold standard • May 12: Emergency Farm Mortgage Act • May 18: Tennessee Valley Authority established • May 27: Truth in Securities Act • June 13: Home Owners' Loan Act • June 16: National Industrial Recovery Act and Farm Credit Act
First 100 Days: FDR’s push of programs after programs through Congress in 1933 to help improve the economy. C. First 100 Days (Relief and Recovery) 1. Bank crisis a. Emergency Banking Act b. Declared a “bank holiday” c. Assured the Americans they could again trust the banks
bank closings: 1st step to restore the public’s faith in the banking system. • Glass-Steagall Act (1933): created the • FDIC which guarantees personal bank • accounts • Henry B.Steagall of Ozark, AL drafted the Glass-Steagall Act of • 1933, which created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation • (guaranteeing bank deposits). • Federal Securities Act: Regulated the sale of stocks
CCC camp #472 Ft. Payne, AL http://www.trackingyourroots.com/data/ccc.htmlTracking CCC relatives 2. CCC employed jobless young men in rural projects such as reforestation, park maintenance, and erosion control Civilian Conservation Corps: created March 31, paid $30 per month to youth 18-25 from relief families, would total 2 million young people by 1941 (GRE)
Little River Canyon and the Falls were helped by the CCC when it was decided that that it would be a good opportunity to build nature trails, bridle paths, etc. while the Civilian Conservation Corps boys were available. De Soto Falls on the Little River Mentone, AL
3. Agricultural Adjustment Act which paid farmers not to farm in order to revive the farm economy; parts of it later declared unconstitutional Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA): tried to raise farm prices through subsidies or governmental financial assistance such as lending them cash. eroded land, AL
Soil erosion 1936, AL
4. National Industrial Recovery Act, which encouraged business-government cooperation and major industries drafted codes of "fair competition; declared unconstitutional in order to reduce competition
National Recovery Administration (NRA): industry wide codes that helped stop the tailspin of industrial prices; this was FDR’s attempt to help businesses by stabilizing prices.
5. TVA—Built dams that made rural electrification possible Tennessee Valley Authority: works project that created jobs, cheap electricity, flood control, and recreational areas in Tennessee and north Alabama. (GRE) Flood damage
TVA Tree Nursery at Muscle Shoals, AL Navigation Locks at Dam No. 2, Florence, AL Wilson Dam, Sheffield, AL Electrical generator
6. fireside chat: FDR speaking on the radio directly to the country to reassure it. http://www.mhric.org/fdr/fdr.html or http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/firesi90.html for transcripts of fireside chats
7. Reconstruction Finance Corporation cont. 8. Accepted John Maynard Keynes (Keynesian economics which calls for deficit spending which can stimulate economic recovery) theory but reluctant to deficit spend 9. Farm Security Administration sent photographers (Dorothea Lange) to take pictures of the Dust Bowl victims. 10. Fair Labor Standards Act banned child labor and established a minimum wage and maximum workweek
Another way to help those in need PWA low income housing
Public Works Administration (PWA): government funded projects to build public facilities and provide jobs. The PWA was headed by Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior. Congress gave permission for the PWA to spend $3,300,000,000 for various public works projects. This included the construction of schools, hospitals, post offices, roads and dams. By June 1934 the agency had distributed its entire fund to 13,266 federal projects and 2,407 non-federal projects.
"In 1931 both banks were closed and the mining industry upon which the City was 75% dependent reached a standstill. Property values decreased 60%, and revenue to the City from taxes was reduced in proportion," wrote the City Commission to the Alabama League of Municipalities,
funding and relief work provided by the New Deal's Works Progress Administration (WPA) and the Public Works Administration (PWA). By 1937, $182,000 in federal funds for local work relief and infrastructural projects, matched by $105,000 raised by local sponsors, had funded sewer, sidewalk, and street improvements, gone to the construction of a new high school, and provided work relief for hundreds of local residents. see http://newdeal.feri.org/carbonhill/ for slide show
Other jobs created by the WPA: Fletcher Martin painting of Kellogg arriving in Kellogg, Idaho. Painted on a post office wall. One example of putting artists to work
Other artwork Brewton, AL Post Office"Logging" - missing*by John Von Wicht (1939)
II. Opponents of FDR A. Father Coughlin: a popular radio personality who made reckless, contradictory, and anti- Semitic statements to his large audience.
B. Huey Long: governor of Louisiana who called for FDR to do more to redistribute the wealth from the rich to the poor. Share Our Wealth Movement demanded that the government make “Everyman a King,” that is to say, every family could get an annual income of $2,000 and a homestead or $6000 to build a home. To pay for this, the government would nationalize all banks and allow no one to be over a " ten millionaire. "
Gov. of La. From 1928 to 1932. Elected U.S. Senator in 1930 but did not go to Washington until 1932. Assassinated in 1935 byDr. Carl Weiss, who received 31bullet holes from guards
C. Dr Francis Townsend: Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, called for payments of $200 per month to persons over 60 years of age Dr. Francis E. Townsend (right), confers with Sheridan Downey, U.S. Senator from California
D. The rich E. A more conservative Congress in his second term which cut relief, passing the Hatch Act (forbids federal workers from participating in electoral campaigns), and rejecting FDR's proposal to reorganize the executive branch
political right: Typically Republicans who wanted to preserve the current system and considered FDR’s programs to be socialist. political left: Typically Democrats who sought radical changes and did not believe FDR’s programs went far enough to helping the economically disadvantaged.
Second New Deal: Reforms that included more welfare benefits, stricter controls over business, stronger support for unions, and higher taxes on the rich; in part to help the common people. • WPA • Wagner Act • Social Security Act • The Wealth Tax Act
Wagner Act: or National Relations Labor Act which included collective bargaining and closed shops to help to strengthen unions and protect union workers. National Labor Relations Board: enforced the provisions that were designed to protect unions.
III. The 2nd New Deal--in response to declining economics and the 1936 election A. Fair Labor Standards Act—banned child labor and established a minimum and maximum hours for the work week B. National Housing Act C. National Labor Relations Act-guaranteed collective bargaining, outlawed blacklisting, and outlawed spying on unions
Social Security Act (1935): provide for old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, and aid for dependent children and the disabled. FDR signing Soc. Security Act
` D. Social Security Act—established the principle of federal responsibility for social welfare and created the basic framework for the welfare system E. AAA of 1938 established the practice of giving farmers loans and storing the surplus during times of low prices and big harvests. F. African Americans: results were mixed in that some New Deals helped blacks, but there was no specific civil rights legislation; Eleanor, a supporter of civil rights but also FDR had to deal with the Southern Dems.
African Americans: were less likely to receive relief assistance or job programs because of discrimination. Working the docks in Mobile, AL 1937
African Americans: did not receive much help federal help in response to discrimination in the North so that African Americans had to picket and boycott businesses on their own. AL, 1938
lynching: became worse in the early 30’s but FDR would not help to enact new laws because he feared alienating Southern Congressmen. Jesse Owens History of the U.S. cd
Mary McLeod Bethune: African American educator and activist who was appointed director of the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration.
conservative Supreme Court: caused FDR his greatest frustration by striking down his legislation as unconstitutional. He responded by trying to “pack” the court. Public reaction to this attempt was very negative. However, FDR would appoint 8 justices from 1937 to 1945. `
Supreme Court: declared the NIRA unconstitutional because it gave the President lawmaking powers. G. "Court Packing” was attempted by FDR after the 1936 election because of his frustration of their declaring his legislation unconstitutional; many people were upset with his attempt; it became unnecessary because the attempt, old age, or death led to 4 being replaced.
Justice Hugo Black, born in Clay Co., AL,appointed in 1937 by FDR to offset the conservative court. Later revealed that Black had been a member of the KKK in the 20s. This would help kill FDRs effort to restructure the court. Black would later be pro-civil rights.
1936 election: landslide victory by FDR over Alf Landon.