DIAMOND CHIP PRESENTED BY : A.RAKESH KIRAN Mail id: email@example.com Contact: 9030492595
Introduction • Electronics without silicon is unbelievable. • Disadvantages when used in power electronics application, such as: 1) bulk in size 2) slow operating speed, etc.
Contd … • Pure Silicon and Germanium are semiconductors in normal temperature. • In earlier days they were used widely for manufacturing of electronic components. Fig: Part of modern periodic table
Contd … • Research people found that carbon has more advantages than silicon. • Using carbon as the manufacturing material, we can achieve smaller, faster and stronger chips.
What is diamond chip? • In a single definition, Diamond Chip or Carbon Chip is an Electronic Chip manufactured on a diamond structure Carbon wafer
How is it possible ? • Diamond structural carbon is non conducting in nature. • To make it conducting, doping process is performed. Boron-- as the p-type. Nitrogen--as the n-type.
invention Developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT), Japan, 1991. A diamond semiconductor operates on a 81 GHz frequency, and is more than twice the speed of earlier devices.
Some facts… • Carbon is not a semiconductor. • Some of the carbon allotropes acts as semiconductor. Fig: Carbon atom.
Graphene. • allotrope of carbon. • structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp2-bondage • densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Fig : Graphene sheet in planer structure. Properties: • It has a remarkably high electron mobility at room temperature. • Graphene structure can be doped easily. • Can be converted back to its undoped.
What is carbon nanotube? • Just fold the graphene sheet into a tube like structure • It is a nanosize cylinder of carbon atoms. • It has less than • one nanometer diameter. Fig:Carbon nanotubes made step by step. Fig :View of CNT.
Types of nanotubes Fig: All SWNT structures. Fig:multiwalled
Why the name DIAMOND CHIP? • Lonsdaleite is an sp3 bondage allotropic form of carbon i.e. 3-dimentional CNT. • Crystal structure of Lonsdaleite looks exactly like diamond. (a) (b) Fig (a): Lonsdaleite Structure. (b):crystal structure of Lonsdaleite.
Properties of CNT • Properties • 1 Strength • 2 Hardness • 3 Electrical • 4 Thermal • 5 One-dimensional transport
Properties… • HARDNESS : • It can withstand a pressure up to 24GPa without deformation. • STRENGTH : • Carbon nanotubes are the strongest and stiffest materials yet discovered in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus respectively.
Properties… • ELECTRICAL : • High electrical conductivity (10-6 ohm). • Do not suffer from electro migration or atomic diffusion and thus can carry high current densities (107 -109 A/cm2 ),which is 1000 times that of copper. • Both metal and semiconductor can be formed.
Properties… • THERMAL : • The temperature stability of carbon nanotubes is estimated to be up to 2800 °C in vacuum and about 750 °C in air. • ONE DIMENTIONAL TRANSPORT : • Because of the nanoscale dimensions, electrons propagate only along the tube's axis. • Carbon nanotubes are frequently referred to as “one-dimensional” Fig: Flow of electrons In Carbon Nanotubes.
A brief idea about carbon transistors • Much smaller components are possible. • Conducts electricity faster as electrons travels through straight line without scattering. • Ultimately we get faster and more efficient electronic component.
How nanotubes are useful in digital logic? • Simple inverter device consists of a nanotube FET and a large bias resistance: which converts a high input voltage to a low one –i.e., "one" to "zero" - and vice versa. • By adding an extra FET in parallel, the researchers made a NOR gate. This device needs two "zero" inputs to give a "one" output, or two "ones" to give a "zero”.
ADVANTAGES ..OF DIMOND CHIP OVER SILICON CHIP • Smaller components are possible. • It works at higher temperature. • Faster than silicon chips. • Larger power handling capacity.
Carbon nanotube Applications • Information and Communications, • Materials and Manufacturing, • Biomedical, • Energy and Environmental, • Transportation • Consumer goods.
LIMITATIONS • Much more expensive than silicon. • Doping process is very hard to perform due to the diamond structure , than in silicon.
Conclusion Thus diamond chip replaces the need of silicon in every aspect in future generation.