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Napoleon Bonaparte. Rise of Napoleon. 24 years old is made a general by the Committee of Public Safety At 26, he becomes commander of French armies in Italy Gains fame for victories in Italy France wants him to invade Britain He knows that invasion will fail, so he invades Egypt instead

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Rise of napoleon
Rise of Napoleon

  • 24 years old is made a general by the Committee of Public Safety

  • At 26, he becomes commander of French armies in Italy

    • Gains fame for victories in Italy

  • France wants him to invade Britain

    • He knows that invasion will fail, so he invades Egypt instead

      • Invasion of Egypt also fails

Consul and emperor
Consul and Emperor

  • 1799 Napoleon takes part in coup d’état that overthrows the Directory.

    • A consulate government is set up

  • Napoleon is named the first consul

    • 3 years later he gets named consul for life

  • 1804, Napoleon is crowned Emperor

Peace with the church
Peace with the Church

  • Napoleon knows it’s good to mend relationship with the Church

    • Makes deal with the pope

      • Catholicism is recognized as the religion of the majority of France

      • In return, the pope will not ask for the return of seized Church lands from the Revolution

    • Catholic Church is no longer an enemy of the State

      • People who seized lands now support the government.

Codification of the law
Codification of the Law

  • Institutes Napoleonic (Civil) Code – unifies all the laws of France

    • the equality of citizens before the law

    • the right to choose your own profession

    • religious toleration

    • abolition of serfdom + feudal obligations

    • women less equal than men

      • No inheritance rights for daughters

A new bureaucracy
A New Bureaucracy

  • public officials + military officers promoted on ability

  • Aristocracy (noble class) based on meritorious service to nation

Preserver of the revolution
Preserver of the Revolution???

  • Liberties taken away

    • newspapers shut down

    • banned books

    • government controlled publishing

    • Mail confiscated + opened by police

Building the grand empire
Building the Grand Empire

  • Napoleon builds France and becomes the greatest power in Europe at the time.

    • Known as the Grand Empire

  • The Grand Empire would consist of three parts

    • French Empire

    • Dependent states

    • Allied states

Building the grand empire1
Building the Grand Empire….

  • The French Empire

    • France and its new extended boundaries

  • The Dependent States

    • Kingdoms ruled by relatives of Napoleon

      • Unified German States

      • Spain - brother

      • Holland – brother

  • The Allied States

    • Countries defeated by Napoleon

    • Russia, Prussia, Austria

Building the grand empire2
Building the Grand Empire….

  • Napoleon spreads the ideas of the French Revolution

    • Legal Equality

    • Religious toleration

    • Economic freedom

  • Clergy and nobility have all special privileges taken away

    • Napoleons system of merit instituted in new states

  • Napoleon hoped to build a long lasting French Empire

    • Two factors lead to its demise

      • Britain

      • Nationalism


  • Napoleon wants to invade Britain and conquer.

    • British navy too strong for Napoleons forces

    • French defeated trying to invade

  • Continental System

    • Napoleons new plan to defeat British

    • Set up a blockade against importing British goods, try to bankrupt them

    • System fails

      • Allied states go behind his back

      • Too many markets worldwide to try and stop British trade


  • Sense of identity of a people based on

    • Common language

    • Religion

    • National symbols

  • Conquered people are not forced to take on French culture

    • Still unified by their own culture

    • Resentful of invaders


  • Under control of Napoleon, but ignoring Continental system

    • Must be punished

      • Set precedent for other countries

  • Napoleon sets out with 600,000 men

    • Only brings enough supplies for 26 days

      • Depending on quick victory

    • War would last 6 months

  • Russians strategy baffles Napoleon

    • Refuse to fight

    • Retreat further into Russia

      • Burn fields and homes along the way


  • Napoleon finally reaches Moscow

    • Russian capital

      • Finds it set ablaze

  • Wins two battles along the way, but costly victories

    • Tens of thousands of mendie in battle

  • Begins Great Retreat

    • Napoleon makes decision to leave Russia

    • Still in the dead of winter

    • Thousands of troops are lost

      • Starvation

      • Hypothermia

      • Suicide

    • Less than 40,000 out of 600,000 make it back

Downfall of napoleon
Downfall of Napoleon

  • Disaster in Russia leaves France vulnerable to surrounding countries

    • Napoleon defeated

      • Exiled to island of Elba

    • Louis XVIII restored as monarch in France

      • Brother of Louis XVI

  • Napoleon escapes Elba and returns to France to claim his empire

  • Foreign armies rally together to finish Napoleon for the last time

    • Napoleon defeated at Waterloo in Belgium

    • Duke of Wellington leads British and Prussian troops

  • Defeated, Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena

    • Dies in exile in 1821