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Napoleon Bonaparte. Libertyville HS. Napoleon Seized Power. 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory Why was Napoleon asked? Very popular general Brought with the loyalty of the Army Coup successful; replaced Directory with Consulate

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Napoleon bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte

Libertyville HS

Napoleon seized power
Napoleon Seized Power

  • 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory

  • Why was Napoleon asked?

    • Very popular general

    • Brought with the loyalty of the Army

  • Coup successful; replaced Directory with Consulate

  • 1801: Napoleon became “First Consul” for life (dictator)

Reforms of consul napoleon
Reforms of “Consul Napoleon”

  • Improved schools

  • Clarified tax code

  • Built new roads

  • Established new law code

    • Code Napoleon

    • Introduced Enlightenment principles into legal system

  • Sold French lands in America to American government

The louisiana purchase 1803
The Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • Napoleon had plan to defeat British in Carribbean

  • BUT French troops sent to Haiti, were defeated

  • Napoleon realized he couldn’t defend US lands so he offered to sell to US for $0.03 per acre

  • No one knew how big it was!

Emperor napoleon
Emperor Napoleon

  • Crowned self emperor, in 1805

    • Claimed to want to prevent Bourbon (royal family) from re-establishing monarchy

    • Hypocritical?

  • Napoleon went on to conquer most of Europe

    • Power hungry conqueror or enlightenment liberator?

    • In states he conquered, he set up constitutions, law codes, abolished feudalism, fostered education, etc.

Emperor napoleon1
Emperor Napoleon

  • “I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.”

Napoleonic wars 1805 12
Napoleonic Wars, 1805-12

  • 1805: Coalition of Britain, Austria & Russia vs. France formed

  • Austria, Russia attacked from East

    • Battle of Austerlitz (1805)

  • Napoleon ordered invasion of England

  • Spanish, French fleet defeated by Brits at Trafalgar (1805)

Nw continental system
NW: Continental System

  • Attempt to create a Europe wide boycott of English goods, trade

  • Hurt English economy

  • Hurt European economy

  • Ultimately unsuccessful

Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars

  • 1806-07: Another anti-French coalition formed: Prussia, Russia, England

    • French conquered Prussians, defeat Russians

  • France took over, ended HRE

  • Napoleon and Czar Alexander I

    • Decide to split up (Partition) Poland

    • Ended Holy Roman Empire

Partition of 1795; Napoleon took the

“Prussia” and “Austria” parts in 1807

Nw peninsular war 1808 1812
NW: Peninsular War, 1808-1812

  • Portugal wouldn’t take part in Continental System

  • Napoleon asked Spain to invade Portugal; they refused

  • Napoleon invaded Spain

  • Brits supported Spain, Portugal with money, weapons and troops

  • Guerrilla warfare

  • War tied down several hundred thousand troops

Napoleonic wars invasion of russia 1812 13
Napoleonic Wars: Invasion of Russia (1812-13)

  • Russia stopped taking part in Continental System AND started massing troops on French / Polish border

  • Napoleon invaded Russia w/ ½ million men

  • Russians retreated: “Scorched Earth” policy

  • French captured Moscow

  • “General Winter”

  • Losses

    • French lost over 90% of army

    • Russians lost about 300,000 troops and several 100,000 civilians

Retreat and abdication
Retreat and Abdication

  • Napoleon continued to fight, but his empire fell apart

    • Coalition against France: Russia, Prussia, England, Spain, Portugal

  • Napoleon fought, but outnumbered 5 to 1

  • Gave unconditional surrender, 4/11/14

  • French royalists restored Louis XVII to throne

  • Napoleon exiled to Elba

The hundred days
“The Hundred Days”

  • Napoleon returned to France after hearing a rumor he was to be moved to different island

  • March on Paris: 5th regiment under Ney story

  • King Louis XVII fled, and Napoleon began raising a new army

Battle of waterloo 1815
Battle of Waterloo (1815)

  • Separate English & Prussian armies were in Belgium

  • Napoleon attacked Prussians, pushing them back

  • Turned on British, who were led by Duke of Wellington

  • British ground down French until Prussians showed up

Exile and death
Exile and Death

  • Napoleon exiled to St. Helena, a small island off coast of Africa

  • Died in 1821

  • Legacy

    • One of the greatest military leaders, ever

    • Promoted growth of centralized European state

    • Spread enlightenment ideas throughout Europe

    • Stimulated nationalist movements throughout Europe

Congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna

  • Meeting of all European countries to redraw map of Europe

  • Major powers of meeting: Austria, England, Russia & Prussia - & France!

  • Goals

    • Organize lasting peace

    • Contain, but don’t punish, France

    • Restore legit rulers

Congress of vienna1
Congress of Vienna

  • Significance of Congress

    • Avoided a major European war for 100 years

    • Represented a conservative reaction to French Revolution

    • Peace and stability were exchanged for liberty, civil rights of French Rev.

  • Good trade?