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心肾综合症:新概念新进展 Prevention and treatment of Cardio-Renal Syndrome: New Concepts and Updates. 北京世纪坛医院 北京大学第九临床医学院 杨水祥. 心肾交互影响. 慢性心衰往往被肾功能不全复杂化;急性失代偿性心衰往往因肾功能恶化或利尿剂抵抗预后更差。 心肾综合征( CRS )可能涉及一系列的神经内分泌紊乱及肾稳态调节机制不良。 心肾综合征的发病和治疗需要我们更多的关注。. CRS的定义. 2008 年欧洲学者将 CRS 划分为 5 个亚型: 2010 年提出了新的定义.

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prevention and treatment of cardio renal syndrome new concepts and updates

心肾综合症:新概念新进展Prevention and treatment of Cardio-Renal Syndrome: New Concepts and Updates

北京世纪坛医院

北京大学第九临床医学院

杨水祥

slide2

心肾交互影响

慢性心衰往往被肾功能不全复杂化;急性失代偿性心衰往往因肾功能恶化或利尿剂抵抗预后更差。

心肾综合征(CRS)可能涉及一系列的神经内分泌紊乱及肾稳态调节机制不良。

心肾综合征的发病和治疗需要我们更多的关注。

slide3

CRS的定义

  • 2008年欧洲学者将CRS划分为5个亚型:
  • 2010年提出了新的定义
slide10

肾功能不全或肾脏疾病已成为慢性心衰或ADHF预后不良的一个独立预测指标。肾功能不全或肾脏疾病已成为慢性心衰或ADHF预后不良的一个独立预测指标。

  • 左心室功能障碍预防和治疗回顾分析研究(SOLVD)提示,中度肾功能不全(肌酐清除率小于60毫升/分钟)与心衰住院的全因死亡率和复合终点死亡独立相关,对心衰的严重程度和合并的多元因素调整之后仍然明显相关。
slide11

Smith GL等对16项80000万例患者评价肾功能不全影响心力衰竭结果的研究进行的荟萃分析表明带给我们一些启示。

  • 肾功能不全的严重程度与逐步增加的死亡率呈正相关
  • 血肌酐每递增1毫克/分升则死亡风险增加33%
  • 肾小球滤过率每递减10毫升/分钟则死亡风险上升7%
slide20

CRS1型较常见,在急性失代偿性心衰和急性冠脉综合征(ACS)患者中,急性肾损伤(AKI)的发生率分别约为24%~45%和9%~19%。CRS1型较常见,在急性失代偿性心衰和急性冠脉综合征(ACS)患者中,急性肾损伤(AKI)的发生率分别约为24%~45%和9%~19%。

CRS2型患者,在ARCSCH研究中,随访9.3年,34%心血管疾病(CVD)患者的肾功能下降[肾小球滤过率(eGFR)下降幅度≥15 ml/(min·1.73m2)],其中5.6%的患者出现新发肾脏病。

slide21

CRS3型的常见原因,包括对比剂所致急性肾损伤(CI-AKI)、药物诱导的肾病、心脏及非心脏大手术后AKI等。CRS3型的常见原因,包括对比剂所致急性肾损伤(CI-AKI)、药物诱导的肾病、心脏及非心脏大手术后AKI等。

CRS4型,美国健康营养调查研究(NHANES Ⅱ)显示,当患者eGFR≥90 ml/(min·1.73m2)、70~89 ml/(min·1.73m2)和 <70 ml/(min·1.73m2)时,其CVD的发生率分别为4.5%、7.9%和12.9%。该结果及数项研究提示,CKD可加速CVD的发生风险。

尚缺乏CRS5型的流行病和病理生理机制研究。

slide24

Cardiorenal Interaction

Figure 1. Cardiorenal interaction and stage classification in the initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease and heart failure [1] and [11]. CVD, cardiovascular disease; HF, heart failure; GFR, glomerular filtration rate.

slide25
SNS激活

增加全身血管阻力、儿茶酚胺释放和直接神元刺激,增加肾脏肾素释放;

  • 可进一步降低压力感受器反射调节的敏感性。
  • 导致血管紧张素Ⅱ释放增多,血管收缩,肾出球小动脉收缩,心脏重塑及醛固酮释放增加,水钠滁留和促进心肌纤维化。
slide26

血管紧张素系统激活,血流动力学改变

  • 精氨酸加压素的释放导致血管收缩,水滁留和低钠血症。
  • 心房钠尿肽(心钠素和B型利钠肽)释放,健康人钠尿肽可以减轻血管紧张素系统和SNS激活所致的调节失衡,但心力衰竭时的长期释放可出现钠尿肽抵抗。
  • 肾功能障碍和高血压控制不良也促进醛固酮释放,从而促进心衰发展。
slide33

A Prospective, Blinded Study of Bioimpedance Vector Analysis and Biomarker Testingfor the Prediction of Worsening Renal Function in Consecutive Patients with AcutelyDecompensated Heart Failure: Primary Results of the Biomonitoring and CardiorenalSyndrome in Heart Failure (BIONICS-HF) Trial

slide34

Independent role of high centralvenous pressure in predicting worsening of renalfunction in chronic heart failure outpatients

slide36

CRS的治疗

利尿剂抵抗治疗

(正/负)性肌力药物治疗

超滤

奈西立肽

Treatment

腺苷受体拮抗剂

加压素(抗利尿激素)拮抗剂

slide37

Potential Effects of Digoxin on Long-Term Renal and ClinicalOutcomes in Chronic Heart Failure

slide38

Fig. 2. Adjusted survival curves grouped by randomization todigoxin or placebo and subsequent improved renal function(IRF) status, in patients with a serum digoxin level #0.8 ng/mL.IRF defined as $20% improvement in estimated glomerular filtrationrate (eGFR) from randomization to 1 year. Covariatesadjusted for: age, race, ejection fraction, heart rate, systolic bloodpressure, New York Heart Association functional class, diabetes,baseline use of digoxin, hydralazine, nitrates, diuretics, orangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, physical examinationfindings, cardiothoracic ratio, and baseline eGFR. Overallbetween-group differences: P 5 .028. Comparisons of the YesIRF/Yes Digoxin (n 5 58) and the No IRF/No Digoxin group(n 5 409; P 5 .007), No IRF/Yes Digoxin (n 5 213; P 5.026), and Yes IRF/No Digoxin (n 5 60; P 5 .004) groupswere all statistically significant.

slide39

CRS的最新治疗药物

最新治疗药物

腺苷受

体拮抗

剂rolo

fylline

加压素

(抗利

尿激素

,AVP)

拮抗剂

slide44

Nesiritide奈西立肽

  • recombinant human B-type natriuretic
  • peptide (BNP), acts at the natriuretic peptide A receptor (NPR-A)
  • to decrease preload, afterload, and PCWP,
  • increase CO, increase urine output, and improve diastolic function.
  • Adverse effects include headache and
  • hypotension.
slide46

Carperitide 卡培立肽

  • Carperitide, or A-type natriuretic peptide
  • (ANP),
  • acts as a stronger agonist than BNP at NPR-A. Its
  • hemodynamic effects are similar to those of nesiritide,
  • Although it has more robust natriuretic and diuretic effects that are more pronounced in healthy subjects than in patients with HF.
  • It increases and decreases MAP and PCWP, and its most common adverse effect is hypotension.
slide47

Urodilatin肾钠素

  • Ularitide, the product of differential processing
  • of the pro-ANP precursor in the kidney, acts on
  • NPR-A in the collecting duct
  • thereby increasing excretion of water and sodium.
  • it decreased PCWP, decreased
  • MAP, and increased CI, while down-regulating the RAAS and improving renal sodium excretion in healthy volunteers.
  • The most common adverse effect is dosedependent hypotension.
slide48

CD-NP

  • CD-NP (or ‘‘cenderitide’’) is a chimeric NP
  • synthesized from C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP).
  • CNP originates from endothelial cells and activates NPR-B, resulting predominately in venodilation
  • DNP was isolated from the green mamba snake and activates NPR-A, with effects similar to those of ANP and BNP
  • By fusing the DNP tail to CNP, an NP is created that acts as a partial agonist of NPR-A and an agonist of NPR-B
  • CD-NP decreases PCWP and causes natriuresis and diuresis without a significant decrease in MAP in animal models
  • It significantly decreases Cr compared with furosemide in patients with stable
  • to cause a dose-dependent decrease in SBP
slide49

Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Agents

  • Cinaciguat. Cinaciguat (or BAY 58-2667) is an NO independent sGC activator that is effective
  • Cinaciguat decreases diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo without significantly decreasing SBP, and in patients
  • with ADHF
  • it decreases PCWP and MAP and increases
  • CO without significantly changing Cr.
  • Dose-dependent hypotension is the most common adverse effect.
slide50

RAAS-Modifying Agents

  • Aliskiren阿利吉仑. Aliskiren is an oral direct renin inhibitor
  • that blocks formation of angiotensin I and II without affecting kinin metabolism.
  • decrease SVR and PCWP in patients with decompensated HF,
  • Decreased N-terminal prohormone of BNP (NT-proBNP),plasma renin activity, and urinary aldosterone.
  • Hyperkalemia,hypotension, and decreased renal function have been reported as adverse effects.
slide51

Relaxin松弛素

  • Relaxin, the hormone responsible for many
  • of the maternal hemodynamic changes in pregnancy, acts as a systemic, renal, and coronary vasodilator in animalmodels
  • decreasing afterload, increasing CO, and
  • decreasing the risk of infarction during periods of myocardial ischemia.
  • In humans with HF, relaxin levels were
  • increased and correlated with disease severity
  • it increased CI and decreased PCWP, NT-proBNP, and Cr. No adverse effects have been reported.
slide52

Hydralazine肼苯哒嗪

  • Hydralazine is a direct vasodilator with
  • an unknown mechanism of action that decreases afterload and improves stroke volume, increases renal blood flow
  • and has a moderate direct inotropic effect.
  • Adverse effects
  • include hypotension, nausea, headache, and tachycardia.
slide53

总结

  • 心肾交互影响
  • 机制更为复杂,治疗更加困难
  • 发病率越来越高,需要更多关注
  • 交叉学科联手,防治心肾综合征