Clinical presentation of renal diseases. The presence of renal disease in a patient may be detected because of:. 1. presentation with a symptom or clinical sign that indicates an underlying renal disorder; 2. the presence of a systemic disease known to involve the kidneys;
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1. presentation with a symptom or clinical sign that indicates an underlying renal disorder;
2. the presence of a systemic disease known to involve the kidneys;
3. a family history of inherited renal disease;
4. the finding of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities or disordered renal function tests.
The most common method of detecting proteinuria is by using dipstix. These paper strips are impregnated with tetrabromophenol blue which changes colour from yellow-green to blue-green in the presence of protein.
Urinary protein excretion can increase during pyrexial illnesses, with strenuous exercise, congestive cardiac failure and hypertension.
The further investigation of a patient found to have asymptomatic haematuria depends on a number of factors.
Urine microscopy can be of value if performed on a fresh sample. Red cell casts are diagnostic of glomerular bleeding and do not arise from bleeding anywhere else in the renal tract.
- streptococcus positive cultures
- lumbar pain
- low fever
- lumbar pain
The surgically removed kidney is swollen and its surface shows whitish zones.
A section shows white suppurative areas (scattered with small abscesses) extending eccentrically from the medulla to the cortex. There also were sloughed papillae
Fever is one of the more common manifestations of renal cell carcinoma, occurring in up to 20% of patients.
A spectrum of paraneoplastic syndromes has been associated with these malignancies, including erythrocytosis, hypercalcemia, nonmetastatic hepatic dysfunction (Stauffer syndrome) and acquired dysfibrinogenemia.
For patients with symptoms suggestive of renal cell carcinoma, numerous radiologic approaches are available for the evaluation of the kidney.
Two staging systems used commonly are:
The rate of 5-year survival varies by stage: