Socio Economic Development What are the most pressing education challenges today in developing countries? What makes them so difficult to solve?
ContentsWhat are the most pressing education challenges today in developing countries? What makes them so difficult to solve? • Introduction • Cases study : Conclusion toanswer: What makes them so difficult to solve?
Introduction New demands • Modern economic, social, political, and technological requirements demand that all members of society have a minimum level of basic education. • As countries achieve higher levels of basic education, there will be more demand for secondary, technical, and tertiary education. So there is a need to provide a full educational system. • Similar pressures are coming from the workplace and the population at large for continuous learning to update existing knowledge and skills and stay current with advancements in knowledge and developments in technologies.
Introduction Typical issues in developing countries • The student dropout rate is still too high in many countries. (i.e Sub-Saharan countries) • The quality of teaching and language proficiency is generally insufficient, with a wide variety of situations in each country. • Training programs are not in line with economic needs, making it necessary to review the relevance and content of such programs. • Constant degradation of secondary and tertiary education caused by the pressure to improve access to primary education under tight budgetary restrictions.
China WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES FACED BY CHINA IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM? • HIGHER NUMBER OF POPULATION • QUALITY • COST • INEQUALITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PROVINCES
China Population CHINESE PEOPLE ACCOUNTS FOR ONE FIFTH OF HUMANITY, IS DISTRIBUTED WITHIN A TERRITORY THAT EXTENDS 9600000 SQUARE KILOMETERS AND IS DIVIDED INTO 56 ETHNIC GROUPS OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED BY THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA. There are many difficulties that the central government has met and still meets in managing a system of education that should be applied throughout the country, province by province. CHINA EDUCATION IS THE LARGEST EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE WORLD.
China Quality IN THE INSTITUTION OF COUNTRY OR THE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE, TEACHING COMES FIRST. IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE, VIRTUE WAS THE BASIS OF A COUNTRY. • The national education system has obviously changed over the years. • were made different processes of adjustment • new reform • comparison with the rest of the world
THE MOST POPULAR TYPE OF ARTICULATION OF SCHOOL CYCLES IS EXPECTED THAT, AFTER TWO YEARS OF KINDERGARTEN, SIX YEARS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FOLLOWED BY THREE YEARS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL AND THREE MORE YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL. 6+3+3 Postgraduate university upper secondary secondary base We can distinguish two types of school, the schools and the so-called normal schools of excellence that is always accessed by selecting. Primaryschool
China Cost CHINA, ACCORDING TO DATA PUBLISHED BY UNESCO, FROM 'UNICEF AND THE ONU, IS AMONG THE COUNTRIES THAT INVEST LESS IN CULTURE AROUND THE WORLD. EDUCATION IS FOR ABOUT 2% OF GDP. Parents contribute to the expenses of the school (in some cases even the teacher's salary), established independently by various provinces, the purchase of books that are provided by the State controlled price. With the 1993 Act for compulsory education were instituite of tuition fees.
China Inequalities in the different provinces The Chinese education system is administered by the local authorities at the level of primary and secondary schools, as is well decentralized from the point of view of management of the teaching staff and facilities school. DIFFERENT LEVEL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROVINCES AND REGIONS OF THE COUNTRY THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE REFORM PROJECTS OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION. • inequalities in the management • Different capacity of household income • lack of teachers willing to relocate to rural schools • lack of educational facilities
“We need to shift from a nation with large human resources to a nation with strong human resouces" 2010 Wang Dinghua
By 2020 will be broadcast completely compulsory education and the rate of coverage of education up to secondary school will reach 90%, while the university level will get to 40%, with 200 million people who reach this level of culture. Wang lays out a four-part strategy that includes plans to expand pre-school and compulsory education; greater equity in access to a good education; enhanced quality of education; and better data and assessment measures.
INDIAThe education scenario • Ensuring elementary education in India is a really challenging task due to size of the population! • The Government increased the number of schools and institutes the last few years. The problem is still not solved Ruralareas Femalepopulation
INDIAThe education challenges • What are the challenges faced by India in the education system? COST QUALITY ACCESS SOCIAL AND CULTURAL
INDIAThe education challenges • To guarantee the quality of it’s education, India’s main challenges are: • Maintaining standards of education in more than a million schools nationwide • Offering training programs to the teachers • Keeping a good balance with educational system worldwide
INDIAThe education challenges • To guarantee the access to it’s education, India’s main challenge is to: • Develop it infrastructures and get rid of social issues Harder to make education accessible to all segments of the society (women, minorities, poor)
INDIAThe education challenges The Cost • It remains very high even for the people who can access education. • High competitive pressure on students and parents Private tuitions and training to supplement school education
INDIAThe education challenges Social and Cultural • Large ethnic diversity in India • Challenges to implement consistent education nationwide • More than 300 languages spoken in the country • Difficulties to offer education tailored to specific social segment. • Educating women in some societies is a big issue • Children of poor families are forced to work and miss out the learning opportunities • Illiterate adults have very limited opportunities to get educated at later age in their lives
INDIAHow to face the challenges Develop an Online education system • Improves Quality of Education • Improves Accessibility • Reduces the cost of education • Gets rid of the Social issue
Morocco Morocco’s education background Before the independence in 1956 : • The school was not a mandatory • Literacy stood at 87% • All the lessons were given in French After the independence : • The government decided to implement comprehensive reforms in education • Student between 7-15 years old are given free education • The school became a mandatory => Good result but steal some disparities
Morocco The Challenges of Moroccan education Incomplete and inequitable access to basic education • Develop the access to basic education • It remains incomplete and unfair • A minority of children are style excluded from the primary cycle • In rural area children are forced to work • To decrease the huge gender disparity • Girl’s access to primary and secondary education is low • 75% of the women in rural area are illiterate • Generalization of rural education • 60 % of people living in rural area are illiterate
Morocco The Challenges of Moroccan education Quality of learning • To offer a training program to the teacher for giving a good teaching work • The government renew the education programs • The teachers doesn’t have specific training • Inadequacy between second cycle, third cycle and the market needs • the number of repetition and abundance of all levels of education is high
Morocco The Challenges of Moroccan education Strategic management of the education • Education management remains a major challenge, both in terms of allocation of human and financial resources • Strengthen strategic management reform • The number of teachers is low • High number of student • Adaptation of the Financial budget for the education • The government have to find new financial solutions • Improve a student system for education and information and guidance
Brazil History and progress • COLONIALISM (1532), INDIPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822) AND THE BRAZILIAN EMPIRE • THE FIRST REPUBLIC, THE POPULIST PERIOD, THE DICTATORSHIP AND PRESENT THE NEW REPUBLIC • INCREASE OF POPULATION WELFARE AND THE EVOLUTION IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY • THE SIXTH ECONOMIC POWER IN THE WORLD (IT IS A MEMBER OF THE GROUP UNOFFICIALLY CALLED BRIC (BRAZIL, RUSSIA, INDIA AND CHINA), OR ALL FOUR MAJOR EMERGING COUNTRIES WITH HIGHER ECONOMIC GROWTH).
Brazil Problems • CITY DIVIDED BETWEEN EXTREME POVERTY AND EXTREME RICHNESS • FAVELAS AND TOURIST CENTERS OF LUXURY • DIFFICULT CONTROL OF POOR POPULATION AND THEIR STANDARD OF LIFE
Brazil Culture and education • BASIC EDUCATION IS GUARANTEED TO ALL BUT THE DIFFICULTY IN THE CENSUS OF THE POPULATION IN LARGE URBAN AREAS CREATES A GREAT DIFFICULTY BY THE GOVERNMENT TO COMPEL CHILDREN TO ATTEND SCHOOL • LITERACY RATE: 90.6%. • UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: 3,880,000. • UNIVERSITIES RECOGNIZED BY THE BRAZILIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION: 2360. • EXCELLENT PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES FREQUENTED BY THE RICH AS THEY HAVE BEEN ABLE TO ATTEND SCHOOL IN PAYMENT OF EXCELLENT QUALITY, THE POOR CLASS WHO ATTENDED HIGH SCHOOL PUBLIC HAS SOME DIFFICULTY IN ACCESSING STATE UNIVERSITY COURSES.
Brazil The Brazilian education system • EDUCATION IN BRAZIL IS GUARANTEED TO ALL CITIZENS BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT UNTIL THE END OF THE PERIOD DESCRIBED AS ‘BASIC EDUCATION’, WHICH CORRESPONDS TO THE FOLLOWING: EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (YOUNG CHILDREN UP UNTIL 5 YEAR-OLDS); FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION (A NINE-YEAR CYCLE DIVIDED INTO TWO STAGES: GRADES 1ST-5TH (6-10 YEAR OLDS) AND 6TH-9TH (11-14 YEAR OLDS) AND ENSINO MÉDIO (SECONDARY EDUCATION) WHICH IS INTENDED FOR STUDENTS AGED 15-17.
Brazil The national education plan and the education development • UNIVERSALIZE FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION TO NINE YEARS FOR ALL 6-14 YEAR-OLDS. • UNIVERSALIZE ACCESS TO SCHOOLING FOR ALL 15-17 YEAR-OLDS BY 2016, AND ENSURE THAT 85% OF STUDENTS IN THIS AGE RANGE ARE ENROLLED IN SECONDARY EDUCATION BY 2020. • TO DOUBLE THE REGISTRATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL TECHNICAL EDUCATION AT SECONDARY LEVEL, ENSURING THE QUALITY OF THE COURSES OFFERED. • GRADUALLY RAISE THE NUMBER OF REGISTRATIONS FOR STRICTO SENSU20 POST-GRADUATE DEGREES, IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE GRADUATION OF 60,000 MASTERS AND 25,000 PHDS YEARLY. • ENSURE THAT ALL BASIC-EDUCATION TEACHERS HAVE A SPECIFIC GRADUATE DEGREE IN THE AREA IN WHICH THEY TEACH, OBTAINED IN A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT BETWEEN THE UNION, THE STATES, THE FEDERAL DISTRICT AND THE MUNICIPALITIES.
Strategies • UNIVERSALIZE ACCESS TO HIGH-SPEED BROADBAND AND TO INCREASE THE NUMBER OF COMPUTERS PER STUDENT IN THE CLASSROOMS OF THE PUBLIC BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEM, PROMOTING THE PEDAGOGICAL USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES. • MAINTAIN AND EXPAND PROGRAMS AND ACTIONS TO CORRECT THE FLOW OF STUDENTS IN FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION BY MEANS OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF THE PROGRESS OF UNDERACHIEVERS; AND BY ADOPTING EXTRA-CURRICULAR CLASSES, PROGRESS MONITORING AND RECUPERATION IN ORDER TO PROMOTE THE REPOSITIONING OF STUDENTS IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN A WAY THAT IS COMPATIBLE WITH THEIR AGE. • SELECT, CERTIFY AND DISSEMINATE EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUNDAMENTAL AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, ENSURING A DIVERSITY OF METHODS AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES, AS WELL AS THE MONITORING OF THE RESULTS IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN WHICH THEY ARE APPLIED. • EXPAND PROGRAMS AND ACTIONS AIMED AT SUPPORTING THE STUDENT AT ALL STAGES OF THE BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEM, BY MEANS OF SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAMS OF EXTRA EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES, TRANSPORTATION, SCHOOL MEALS AND HEALTH ASSISTANCE. • PROVIDE EQUIPMENT AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR PEDAGOGICAL USE IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND AT ALL SCHOOLS PROVIDING FUNDAMENTAL AND SECONDARY EDUCATION.
DEVELOPED COUNTRIESA quick overview We’ve presented the education situation in developing countries… … How developed countries can improve education in developing countries?
Conclusion • Around the world, some 75 million children have no opportunity to attend primary school. • Access to education is especially difficult for socially disadvantaged groups such as rural or indigenous communities, poor urban dwellers, AIDS orphans or the disabled. Four out of five children who do not go to school live in rural regions.
Conclusion To answer: What makes them so difficult to solve? • Inadequate budgets: • In most developing countries, the budgets allocated for primary education are too low to meet requirements and to achieve the goal of universal compulsory school attendance. • According to the UNESCO, developing countries spend an average of 4.4 per cent of their national income on education. • Bad governance, high staff turnover, inefficient use of funding, corruption and lack of management and organizational skills are other obstacles to the universal provision of education.
Conclusion To answer: What makes them so difficult to solve? • Lack of school and teaching staff: • Lack of primary school network and public transport in rural regions and poor urban districts . • Many schools are poorly equipped and have no funding to cover overheads such as water, electricity or transport for pupils. • Teachers' working conditions are unacceptable in many developing countries. • Many developing countries face the problem of low-quality teaching.
Conclusion To answer: What makes them so difficult to solve? • Costs of attending school: • Many people in developing countries cannot afford to pay school fees or for learning materials, school uniforms and transport to school. • Numerous families rely on the income their children contribute.
Conclusion To answer: What makes them so difficult to solve? • Another's reasons: • High illiteracy rates