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ING303 Teaching Language Skills I. Lecture 1: EnglIsh teachIng today : what do I need to know ?. Introduction : Teaching Priorities. What do we want to teach in the language classroom ? Fluency and Accuracy

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ing303 teaching language skills i

ING303Teaching Language Skills I

Asst. Prof. Dr. Emrah Görgülü

Lecture 1: EnglIshteachIngtoday: what do I needtoknow?

introduction teaching priorities
Introduction: TeachingPriorities

What do wewanttoteach in thelanguageclassroom?

  • FluencyandAccuracy
    • Wewantourstudentstospeak English fluently ____________________ andaccurately ___________________.
    • It is importantforstudentstouse English fluentlyandaccurately in orderto ______________________. (do Task 1)
  • DifferentstylesandEnglishes
    • It is importanttonotethatthere is not onlyone ‘style of English’ as a result of English beingusedworldwideforallsorts of purposes.
    • Whataresomestyles of English & examples of World Englishes? ______________________________________________________. (do Task 2)
introduction teaching priorities cont d
Introduction: TeachingPriorities(cont’d)
  • Vocabulary
    • Teaching/learningnewwords is a significantpart of teaching/learning a newlanguage, particularlyfor ___________________.
    • Vocabularylearningshould be givenspecialimportance as courses do not providelearnerswiththeamount of vocab. theyneed. (do Task 3)
  • Writing
    • Writing is generallyused as a meansforlanguagepracticeandtesting, ratherthanteachingstudentshowtowritewell.
    • Writing has not beengivenenoughattention as much as otherlanguageskills (i.e. speakingandlistening).
    • Informalwriting is becomingmore popular duetotheuse of ___________ (do Task 4)
english as an international language
English as an internationallanguage
  • English has undergone a dramaticchangefrombeingthelanguge of certaincountriestobeing a global means of communication.
  • Thisdevelopment has caused a number of changes in theprinciplesandpractice of Englishlanguageteaching. (do task 5)
english as an international language cont d
English as an internationallanguage (cont’d)
  • LanguageStandards
    • A majorissue: whichEnglishshould be taught in theclassroom? British, Americanorsomething else? Therearedifferences in terms of ________.
    • Thisissue is not relevant as theattention has shiftedtowhichlexical, grammatical, phonologicalandspellingformsareusedworldwide.
      • Twoweeks / fortnight
      • The [r] sound in wordscar, brotherandever!
      • Thepronunciation of thewordslikebinoculars, directorandcan’t! (do Task 6)
  • TheNativeandNon-nativeEnglishTeacher
    • Englishteacherswhoare not nativespeakers of Englishoutnumberteaherswhoarenativespeakers.
    • Theyshould be fullycompetent in Englishand set a goodexample!
english as an international language cont d1
English as an internationallanguage (cont’d)
  • Theplace of EnglishLiteratureandCulture
    • Thetendencywasthattheteachingmaterialshould be takenfrom ‘authentic’ textsfromEnglish-speakingcountries.
    • This is nowchanging as textsadaptedfromnon-English-speakingworldareused. Studentsshould be taughtdifferentcultures. (do Task 7)
  • Theplace of the L1
    • Theaim of an Engishcoursewastomakelearnerscommunicatelikenativespeakers.
    • This is not a realisticone since English is basically a tool, likemathorcomputerskills, an abilitytheneedtohavetofuction in today’sworld.
    • The L1 is learner’sprimarylanguageandtheonetheyidentifywith. There is no reasonto ban theuse of L1 in theclassroom. (do Task 8)
language acquisition theories and teaching methodologies
Language acquisition theories and teaching methodologies
  • Theories of language acquisition: How do we learn a second lang.?
    • Intuitive acquisition: we learn a second language the same way we learn our first language. Acquisition by way of exposure to the language in authentic communicative situations.
    • Habit-formation: Language is a set of habits. We mimic and memorize and drill the patterns of language until we learn to produce the correct form.
    • Cognitive Process: Language involves the understanding of underlying rules: if we master these rules, we will be able to apply them in different contexts.
    • Skill-learning: Language is a skill. We learn it in school just as we learn other skills: someone explains the rules to us, we understand and practice them until we use them fluently and skillfully.
language acquisition theories and teaching methodologies cont d
Languageacquisitiontheoriesandteachingmethodologies (cont’d)
  • Themaincontrastingideasunderlyingthesefourtheories: explicitvs. implicitteachingandlearning.
    • An implicit model: Welearnlanguagesthroughsubconsciousacquisitionwithoutactuallyworkingoutrulesortranslatingwords. Theimplicit model is expressed in the ____________ items.
    • An explicit model: weneedtoconsciouslyunderstandhowthelanguageworks, expressed in the ___________________ items.
    • Allthesetheorieshavesometruth in them! None on itsowncoverthecomplexity of second-language-learningprocess.
    • Whichsecondlanguageacquisition model makesmore sense toyou?
language teaching approaches and methodologies
  • What is an approachtolanguagelearning?
    • Your thoughtsandbeliefs about how languageworksandhow it is learned.
    • An approach to language learning consists of the techniques and activities you decide to use in orderto learn a language.
  • What is a methodology?
    • A methodology is a collection of teachingproceduresthatarecompatiblewith a particularapproach
  • Therehavebeenquite a number of approachesandmethodologiesusedforlanguageteaching in thetwentiethcentury (e.g. grammar-translationmethod, audio-lingualmethodetc…)
language teaching approaches and methodologies cont d
Language teachingapproachesandmethodologies (cont’d)
  • Grammar-translationmethod:
    • Itwashistorically used in teaching LatinandGreek.
    • Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
    •  Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided. Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together.
      • Subject + am/is/are + Verbing (+Object)
    • Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa. 
    • Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
language teaching approaches and methodologies cont d1
Language teachingapproachesandmethodologies (cont’d)
  • Direct Method:
    • Itstarted as a reactiontothegrammar-translationmethodin an attempt to use the target language in theclassroom.
    • Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language.
    • Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures. The mother tongue is NEVERused in instruction.There is no translation. 
    • Questions are answered in the target language. Grammar is taught inductively--rules are generalized from the practice and experience with the target language.
    • Culture is considered an important aspect of learning the language.  The culture associated with the target language is also taught inductively.
language teaching approaches and methodologies cont d2
Language teachingapproachesandmethodologies (cont’d)
  • Audio-lingualMethod (Audio-lingualism)
    • Languagelearning is viewed as habit formation. Thusthismethod promotestheuse of repetition, memorization andteacher-leddrilling.
    • Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.
    • Little or no grammatical explanations are provided; grammar is taught inductively. Skills are sequenced: Listening, speaking, reading and writ.
  • PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production) / Modern Audio-lingualism
    • It is usedtoteachfunctions, grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.
    • In a PPP lesson there are three stages: first, the teacher presents the target language; then, students practise the new language items; and finally they use their own ideas to talk about themselves /things.
language teaching approaches and methodologies cont d3
Language teachingapproachesandmethodologies (cont’d)
  • TheCommunicativeApproach
    • CommunicativeCompetence: Itis the acquisition of the ability to use a language to achieve yourcommunicative purposes.
    • Communicative competence represents a shift in focus from the grammatical to the communicative properties of the language.
    • TheCommunicativeapproach is based on theassumptionthatlanguage is forcommunicationandwelearn it throughnaturalisticacquisitionprocesses (i.e. thewaywelearnournativelanguage).
    • Theclassroom is morelearner-centredandconveyingof meanings is seen as moreimportantthanaccuracy.
    • Somemethodologiesbased on the CA: task-basedinstructionand CLIL.
language teaching approaches and methodologies cont d4
Language teachingapproachesandmethodologies (cont’d)
  • The Post-communicativeApproach
    • Itmaintainsthe idea thatthe main function of language is effectivecommunication. Methodologiesshouldinvolveplenty of comm. tasks.
    • Itgivesspecialemphasis on teachinggrammar, vocabulary, pronunciationandspelling.
    • Italsoincludestechniquessuch as translationandlearningdialoguesortextsbyheart.
    • Thisapproachis a recognition that there is not onespecific ‘best' way to teach a language.Itcovers more than just speaking, or performing functional tasks; italso includesliteratureandotherthings.
computerized teaching materials
  • Amassivedevelopment in thearea of languageteachingmaterialsand a significantincrease in theuse of computers / digitalsources.
  • Computer-assistedlanguagelearning (CALL) startedto be widelyused in the 1990s and 2000s.
  • Studentsandteachersstillpreferto do most of theirlearningandteachingthrough a coursebook in theclassroom.
  • The main question is not whethertousecomputerizedmaterialsor not, but howandwheretousethem.
using technology in the classroom
Using technology in theclassroom
  • Theproduction of newmaterialsbyteachersor of assignmentsbystudentscould be done morequicklyandeasilythrough software.
  • Data projectorsenablepresentationsandteachingmaterialsto be displayed on a screen.
  • Theinteractivewhiteboard (IWB) combinesthefunctions of data projectorandthewhiteboard.
  • Theuse of Internet: communicationthroughemailoutsidetheclassroom, informationgatheringthroughthe World Wide Web.
  • Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move toward a goal.Itis an importantfactor in learninglanguagesuccessfully.
  • IntegrativeandInstrumentalMotivation
    • IntegrativeMotivation: Itreferstothedesire of thelearnertolearnthelanguage in ordertointegrateintothecommunity of thespeakers of thatlanguage.
    • InstrumentalMotivation: It is theneedtolearnthelanguageformaterialoreducationalbenefit: toget a (better) job, togotograduateschool.
  • ExtrinsicandIntrinsicmotivation
    • Extrinsic (outside) motivationinvolvesexternalconditionssuch as materialrewards (e.g. prize, money), goodgradesandpraise.
motivation cont d
Motivation (cont’d)
  • Intrinsicmotivation: Itis self-motivationandcomesfrom ‘inside’.
      • Intrinsically-motivatedstudentswork on an activitybecausetheyfind it usefulandrelevanttotheir life andtheirobjectives.
  • Self andPersonal Identity
    • Itrefersto how weseeourselvesorwishtoseeourselves in thefuture. A studentwhoseeshimselforherself as high-achievingwillmakemoreeffort in learning.
    • A studentwhowantstogoandliveabroadwilllearn English oranotherlanguagequicklyandeasily. (do thetask on page 11)
what to do to motivate language learners
Whatto do tomotivatelanguagelearners?
  • Taketheopportunitytoshowthem how important it is tospeak English – furtherstudyandpossibleemployment, free-time activities, gettingtoknowothercultures.
  • Promotingtheirself-image as successfullearners – teachersshould do theirbesttomake sure studentssucceed in tasks, takeeveryopportunitytoencouragethem!
  • Ensurethatclassroomactivitiesareinteresting – teachersneedtousecertainstrategies in taskdesigntomaintainstudentinterest.
wrap up
  • Whathavewedoneso far?
    • TeachingPriorities
    • English as an internationallanguage
    • Language-acquisitiontheoriesandteachingmethodologies
    • Computerizedteachingmaterials
    • Motivation
coming up next
  • TheLesson!