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CHAPTER 1. Contemporary Physical Education Programs and Instruction. Evolution of PE Programs. Early physical training programs: Military-type discipline Provided school with manual labor Expansion of PE goals/purposes in 1880s: Should be hygienic, educative, re-creative, and remedial

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chapter 1


Contemporary Physical Education Programs and Instruction

evolution of pe programs
Evolution of PE Programs
  • Early physical training programs:
    • Military-type discipline
    • Provided school with manual labor
  • Expansion of PE goals/purposes in 1880s:
    • Should be hygienic, educative, re-creative, and remedial
  • Should improve self-discipline and character
  • The Boston Conference 1889: The Swedish System won the “Battle of the Systems”
new physical education clark hetherington 1910
“New Physical Education” (Clark Hetherington, 1910)
  • Organic education—development of muscular and skeletal vigor
  • Psychomotor education—development of skill in neuromuscular activities
  • Character education—development of moral, social, and personal characteristics
  • Intellectual education—development of cognitive, expressive knowledge
a physically educated person naspe 1992
A “Physically Educated Person”(NASPE, 1992)
  • Has learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical skills
  • Participates regularly in physical activity
  • Is physically fit
  • Knows implications of and benefits from involvement in physical activity
  • Values activity and its contributions to a healthful lifestyle
diversity and rapid expansion in pe programs since the 1960s
Diversity and Rapid Expansion in PE Programs since the 1960s
  • State and national standards for PE
  • Separation of developmentally appropriate activities for different grade levels
  • Different and competing theories for designing program content
  • Research concerning children’s and youth’s fitness needs


diversity and expansion of pe programs continued
Diversity and Expansion ofPE Programs (continued)
  • Development of new movement forms
  • Title IX—equal opportunities for girls and young women
  • Legislation and policies for including students with special needs
  • Increased ethnic diversity in U.S. schools
evolution of instruction from method to model
Evolution of Instruction—From Method to Model
  • Direct, formal instruction
  • Teaching strategies—less direct and formal; more flexible
  • Teaching styles—determined by control of decision making at different times in class (Mosston, 1966; Mosston & Ashworth, 2002)
  • Other approaches/teaching skills—any action that increases student learning
  • Instructional models—a broader conceptualization of ways to instruct
new view of instruction instructional models
New View of Instruction—Instructional Models

Includes consideration of:

  • Learning theory
  • Long-term learning goals
  • Context and content
  • Classroom management
  • Related teaching strategies
  • Verification of process
  • Assessment of student learning
overview of instructional models
Overview of Instructional Models
  • Are a comprehensive and coherent plan for teaching
  • Designed to be used for an entire unit of instruction
  • Go beyond the limitations of teaching methods, styles, and skills
  • Provide most effective way to reach aims for learning within great diversity of content
  • Can be used as a blueprint for a teacher to follow
what is included in models
What Is Included in Models?
  • For a unit:
    • Planning
    • Design
    • Implementation
    • Assessment functions
  • Multiple teaching methods, strategies, styles, or skills
models and standards for pe
Models and Standards for PE
  • Each model identifies a set of outcomes that should be demonstrated if the model is applied correctly.
  • All outcomes can be directly linked to one or more NASPE standards.
factors in instruction
Factors in Instruction
  • Intended learning outcomes
  • Context and teaching environment
  • Student development stage and readiness
  • Student learning preferences
  • Domain priorities


factors in instruction continued
Factors in Instruction (continued)
  • Task structure and organizational patterns
  • Sequencing of learning tasks
  • Assessment of learning outcomes
  • Assessment of instructional practices
reasons for using a model based approach in pe
Reasons for Using a Model-Based Approach in PE
  • Helps the teacher make a deductive decision about instruction
  • Matches context, content, and goals for each unit
  • Is supported by research
  • Is a blueprint to follow in designing and implementing instruction


reasons for using a model based approach continued
Reasons for Using a Model-Based Approach (continued)
  • Provides teacher with feedback about effectiveness of instruction
  • Leads to increased clarity about expected behaviors, roles, decisions, and responsibilities
  • Allows teachers to adapt the model to the unique needs of learners and the context
  • Provides new opportunities for students!!!


  • Issues and/ or concerns…
  • Comments!!!