1. INTRODUCTION. • Appreciation • Location • Located at east Africa and shares land borders with Eritrea in the north, Djibouti to the north east, Somalia to the east , Kenya to the south and Sudan to the west
PART ONEEthiopian political and socio-economic situation. • Ethiopia is one of the few African countries never to lose its independence. Its land area is 1.13 million Km2 . • Most recent figures suggest that Ethiopia's population was about at 74.2 million in 2005 of which 85% live in rural areas and is growing at rate of 2.2%per year. • Economy is agriculture based with the national income per capita at $190. Main export being coffee, hides, oil seeds and lately flowers • Official language is Amharic although 83 indigenous Native Languages are likely to be spoken of which 56 are found in in South Nations Nationalities & Peoples Regional State from which I am represented. • The major religions Christianity and Islam. • Ethiopia's high altitude ensures a temperate, moderate, even chilly climate. There are two rainy seasons. The irregular short rains from late January to early March and the long rains from June until Mid-September. • Ethiopia follows the Julian calendar, which consists of twelve months of thirty days each and a thirteenth month of five days in a leap year. The calendar is seven year behind the western (Gregorian) calendar.
After the defeat of military regime in 1991 Ethiopia is running democracy through out the country by establishing free market and multi party system. • Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic and has a parliamentarian form of government. The Federal Democratic Republic Comprises the Federal Government and nine (9) member states. Both Federal & Regional States have legislative, executive and judicial powers on the matters defined in the FDRE constitution. • There are two houses in the Federal level. Called House of Peoples Representatives and House of Federation. Both houses are represented by democratically elected representatives from the nine regions of the country. The House of People's Representatives is the legislative body of the Federal Government.
4. THE POLICE SERVICE IN ETHIOPIA • The Ethiopian police is organized and structured in a decentralized manner in line with the Federal system of government that the country is pursuing. Accordingly there are the Federal police and State police. Although they are autonomous, the Federal and state police both are responsible for the preservation of peace, security and the maintenance of law and order in their respective localities. • There are about 35,000 law enforcement officers in the country, which are about 1:2000 ratio to the number of the population. • The main are Drug control, counter-Terrorism and organized crime, Airport security, VIP and facility protection, Riot control, Border control etc... • At this juncture it is appropriate to bring to your knowledge that the Ethiopian police are now institutionally restructured in the context of the socio-economic changes occurring in the country.
The issue of creating an open and accountable civil police service responsive to the community was a part of the transformation process that receives priority. The management of change has been emphasized in revitalizing and strengthening the police to make it service focused. • A new approach to training and community participation in the recruitment is also introduced. The over all goal of the organization is defined in the context of keeping the safety of the community, upholding the rule of law, and protection of human rights.
THE JUDICICAL SYSTEM. • Judicial powers, both at Federal and State levels are vested in the courts. Ethiopian court system is a continental (civil) law legal system. Based on the constitution of the country the counts have their own structure and power. • Judicial authority at Federal and Regional levels is vested in the Supreme Court, high court, and first-instance courts. Courts at any level are free from any interference or influence of any other source. The main function of the courts is interpreting the law. • The role of police within this juncture is to investigate reported crimes, make arrest with or without warrant and present the investigation file to the Public Prosecutors for arraignment. • In relation to corruption related crimes it is the sole jurisdiction of the Office of Ethics and Anti Corruption Commission which is responsible for investigation, arraignment and prosecution of all corruption related crimes.
PART TWOGENERAL CRIME SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA. • Generally speaking major categories of offences over the last five years 2001 -2005 is not declining. • This shows that the duty of police service is always challenging and becoming more serious.
DRUG CONTROL SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA. • Drug trafficking and abuse is a major problem contributing to development related problems in the country • Drug trafficking and abuse is a recent phenomenon in the country and it has become a source of concern in major towns. Due to this fact there has been considerable seizures and incineration of illicit drugs over the last few years. • Ethiopia has been a preferred transit point particularly for illegal Heroin trafficking between Europe and Africa • International conventions, to which Ethiopia is a party has been ratified to ban the production, sale and consumption of drugs outside their medico scientific purpose. • Cannabis is cultivated in the southern and northern parts of the country. Field research under taken in early 2005 found cannabis cultivation in shashamane district, and that farmers there cooperate with the local Rastafarian community (Jamaican nationals) in cultivation and supply. While cultivation is deemed to be on the increase and is of high concern to the government, the extent of cultivation is not known. • Country wide cannabis seizures during the years under review indicate that the problem continues to be persisting and its production and abuse on massive scale. So that it is highly became a source of concern for the law enforcement bodies and other concerned bodies.
Khat is a locally cultivated traditional staple and cash crop which has been used to produce a form of drug though government has regulated its export. • Khat cultivation is extensive and on the increase apparently at the expense of traditional staple and cash crops, such as coffee due to the falling world market coffee prices. • At the national level, the establishment of an effective and efficient monitoring and control system has already received a timely attention. The Ethiopian Government has revised the criminal laws pertaining to drug abuse and enacted stiff punishment for those who engage in drug trafficking and consumption.
TERRORISM • Ethiopia has been at the forefront of fighting terrorism over the last few years and continues to actively participate in the international arena to eliminate this anti-human and anti-civilization menace. • The Government also recognizes the need for a stronger and more comprehensive legislation to effect prosecution of terrorists. It is essential, therefore, to enhance the readiness of the police to face the challenges of terrorist’s acts. • It had ever become evident today that terrorism is ever proliferating, and giving greater cause for alarm and concern at an international scale.
CONCLUSION • "Crime prevention takes the main share and has significant place in the purpose of criminal justice system and it needs over all participation of the public. • The community policing is a newly introduced method of crime prevention in Ethiopia and for its effectiveness; there is a need for reformation in criminal justice system. • The existing formal justice system which is punitive by its nature also needs a reform and it is the right time to appreciate the good values of traditional way of solving problems. • Greater recognition ought to be accorded to Alternative Dispute Resolution methods which already has basis footed in traditional societies dispute resolution methods and the government need to accelerate its recognition by formal regulations. • Restorative justice system is being introduced in various countries and has brought a significant change. I would like to take this opportunity to inform my countries positive stand towards the need for Alternative Dispute Resolution in crime prevention. MAY GOD BLESS YOU