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Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational Objectives. The taxonomy is hierarchical: 1. Knowledge – ability to recall previously learned material. 2. Comprehension - ability to grasp the meaning of the material; ability to explain, summarize, predict consequences.

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slide1

Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational Objectives. The taxonomy is hierarchical:

1. Knowledge – ability to recall previously learned material.

2. Comprehension - ability to grasp the meaning of the material; ability to explain,

summarize, predict consequences.

3. Application – ability to use material in new situations.

4. Analysis – ability to break down material into component parts, recognize

organizing principles.

5. Synthesis – ability to put parts together to form a new whole.

6. Evaluation – ability to judge the value of material based on definite criteria.

Knowledge is the lowest level of learning; Evaluation is the highest

slide2

1. Method

2. Hypothesis

3. Testable predictions

4. Skepticism

5. Progressive enterprise: Verification/Falsifiability

6. Destination/Journey

slide3

Science moves forward as much by critiquing the conclusions of others,

as by making novel discoveries

Stephen J. Gould

stimulus response
Stimulus - Response
  • Environmental stimuli
  • Signal receiver
  • Signal sensor (Kinase)
  • Phospho-relay
  • Response regulator (RR)
  • Response
slide6

Sensor (Kinase)

Response Regulator (RR)

Two-component Signaling

chemotatic response of salmonella
Chemotatic response of Salmonella

10 mM L-serine

10 mM phenol

Rubik et al, PNAS 75:2820-4, 1978

swimming bacteria
Swimming bacteria
  • http://www.rowland.org/labs/bacteria/showmovie.php?mov=swimming_ecoli
slide13

Darkfield movie of motile E. coli

http://www.fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp/labs/namba/npn/index.html

slide14

Tumbling

Running

swimming bacteria15
Swimming bacteria
  • http://www.rowland.org/labs/bacteria/showmovie.php?mov=fluo_fil_leave
slide16

Namba movies

1, 5

Building a flagellum without from within

Driving the motor with PMF

slide18

EnvZ kinase

OmpR~P

Glucose

Osmolarity

Heat Shock

stimulus response21
Stimulus - Response
  • Environmental stimuli
  • Signal receiver
  • Signal sensor (Kinase)
  • Phospho-relay
  • Response regulator (RR)
  • Response
slide26

Chemotactic two-component system

Excitation

Tumbling

OM

CM

CM

OM

Kinase activation

CW

ATP

ADP

M

CheY

Repellents

CheA

CheW

P

MCP

P

Smooth

Swimming

OM

CM

CM

OM

CCW

Kinase inhbition

M

CheY

CheA

Attractants

CheW

MCP

Macnab R. M. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 2003

slide27

Adaptation

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

ATP

ADP

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

P

P

CheZ

P

CheB

P

slide30

Phenotypes of che mutants

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

P

P

Attractants

CheZ

P

CheB

P

slide32

Phenotypes of che mutants∆cheA, ∆cheY

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

CCW

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheW

-CH3

Attractants

CheZ

CheB

Smooth

Swimming

slide33

Phenotypes of che mutants∆cheR

OM

CM

OM

CM

CCW

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

Attractants

CheZ

CheB

Smooth

Swimming

slide34

Phenotypes of che mutants∆cheB, ∆cheZ

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

CW

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

P

P

Attractants

Tumbling

slide35

Summary

  • Bacteria move by rotating flagella
    • CW: tumbling; CCW: running
  • Chemotaxis pathway
    • MCPs: receive the chemical signals
    • CheA: sensor, kinase;
    • CheR: methylation; CheB: demethylation
    • CheY: RR, interacts with flagella motor
      • CheY+P: CW; CheY-P: CCW
    • CheZ: dephosphorylation
  • Phenotypes of ∆che mutants
    • ∆cheA,Y,R: smooth swimming; ∆cheB,Z: tumbling