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Learning and Memory. Stimulus learning; elicited behavior. Definitions. Stimulus Response Elicit Novelty Salient Trials. Elicited Behavior: Reflexes. Innate Automatic responses Fixed? Examples Patella tendon reflex Newborn reflexes Pain-withdrawal reflex

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learning and memory

Learning and Memory

Stimulus learning; elicited behavior

definitions
Definitions
  • Stimulus
  • Response
  • Elicit
  • Novelty
  • Salient
  • Trials
elicited behavior reflexes
Elicited Behavior: Reflexes
  • Innate
  • Automatic responses
  • Fixed?
  • Examples
    • Patella tendon reflex
    • Newborn reflexes
    • Pain-withdrawal reflex
  • Very simple in the nervous system
complex forms of elicited behavior
Complex forms of elicited behavior
  • Fixed (Modal) action patterns
    • Tinbergen and Lorenz
    • Definition
    • Example
      • Eibl-Eidesfeldt (1975) and squirrels
slide6

Species of squirrel and nut burying behavior

    • Observed that once squirrel: Picks up the nut  climbs down to the ground  searches for a place at the bottom of tree trunk or large rock
    • MAP: Once found, scratches a hole with forelimbs  places the nut in hole  rams the nut in place with snout  covers with dirt
  • Is this innate? Maybe they learn by watching other squirrels.
  • Example – Herring-gulls and egg rolling behavior
infant caregiving a map
Infant caregiving – A MAP?
  • Head large in proportion to the body
  • Protruding forehead large in proportion to the size of the rest of the face
  • Large ears and eyes below the midline of the head
  • Small nose
  • Short thick extremities
  • Rounded body shape
  • Soft elastic body surfaces
  • Round protruding cheeks
  • Animals that are “cute” have similar traits.
slide11

Key aspects of MAPS

  • Stereotypical behaviors, but not fixed
  • Sign stimulus
    • Key features of the sign stimulus are needed
    • Ex. Herring-gull bill
    • Ex. Sexual behavior in Japanese quail
  • Adaptive
  • Innate-releasing mechanism
  • Depend on situational factors – E.g., motivation, timing, etc.
  • Supernormal stimulus –
    • Gull example
slide14

Imprinting – immediate learning

    • Ducks and boxes
  • Critical periods
  • Memory lasts the life-span
  • Examples: Mice and odors
  • Zebra finches and mate choice
  • Westermark effect
    • Israeli kibbutz
    • Adaptive?
changing elicited behavior habituation and sensitization
Changing elicited behavior: Habituation and Sensitization
  • Orienting response
    • Depends on the nature of the stimulus
    • Infants and OR
  • Habituation – reduction of the orienting response after repeated presentations.
    • Simplest form of learning
    • In all species including protozoa and isolated tissue
    • adaptive
  • Examples?
  • Not just the OR
habituation of the startle response in rats
Habituation of the Startle Response in Rats
  • http://go.owu.edu/~deswartz/videos/habituation.mov
measuring habituation
Measuring Habituation
  • GSR
  • Heart rate changes
  • Eye fixation
  • Lever pressing
sensitization
Sensitization
  • Opposite of habituation
  • Increased response with repeated stimulation.
  • Intense and salient stimuli
  • Examples:
    • Pain response
    • Annoying sounds
    • Fear-potentiated startle
    • Everyday examples?
slide19

Habituation is learning

    • Not sensory adaptation or fatigue
    • Can last over long periods of time (long-term habituation)
    • dishabituation
slide20

Habituation of reflexive behavior

  • Reflex is a 3 step process
    • Stimulus activates sense organ
    • Relay of sensory messages through interneurons to motor neurons
    • Activation of motor neurons causing muscle to move
  • Habituation occurs at the second step
slide21

Sensory

adaptation

Habituation

Fatigue

characteristics of habituation
Characteristics of habituation
  • Stimulus specificity of habituation:
    • Stimulus generalization
    • Generalization gradient
slide23

Effects of time:

    • A) Habituation will not occur if trials are very spaced.
    • greater stimulus frequency, greater habituation
slide24

Effects of time:

    • B) Responding may reoccur after a lapse of time: spontaneous recovery
spontaneous recovery video
Spontaneous Recovery Video
  • http://go.owu.edu/~deswartz/videos/spontaneous_recovery.mov
slide27

Effects of exposure to a second stimulus

  • Dishabituation
  • Sensitive to time: Attenuation of dishabituation when there is a time gap.
dishabituation video
Dishabituation video
  • http://go.owu.edu/~deswartz/videos/dishabituation.mov
slide29

Savings in habituation

1st habituation

2nd habituation

slide30

Sensitization effects mirror habituation

  • More stimulus generalization
  • Sensitization = arousal
theories of habituation and sensitization
Theories of Habituation and Sensitization
  • Two underlying processes exist
    • 1) A Habituation process
    • 2) A Sensitization process
  • The observable behavior is the sum of these two processes.
  • The habituation effect is observed when the habituation process is greater than the sensitization process.
dual process examples
Dual Process examples

Sensitization effect

Habituation effect

habituation and human infant research
Habituation and Human Infant Research
  • Used to study infant perception and cognition
    • Difficult to study
slide45

Looking

Time

Trials

slide46

Habituation-dishabituation procedure

    • The infant is exposed repeatedly to a stimulus until its looking at the stimulus is at a low value
    • Habituation is only possible if the infant remembers the stimulus
    • Dishabituation is only possible if the infant can compare the stimulus to the original stimulus
what do infants like to look at
What do infants like to look at?
  • Moderately bright objects
  • Moderately complex objects
    • Changes as child develops
      • 3-week-olds like 2x2 checkerboards
      • 14-week-olds like 8x8 checkerboards
      • 4-month-olds initially preferred 2x2, but after repeated ex. Liked 24x24
  • Prefer attractive faces