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California Mandated Reporter Training. Objectives of Mandated Reporter Training. Provide a brief history of child abuse reporting Review statistics/ impact of child maltreatment Educate about purpose/intent of the law Define child abuse and neglect in California

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Objectives of mandated reporter training
Objectives of MandatedReporter Training

Provide a brief history of child abuse reporting

Review statistics/ impact of child maltreatment

Educate about purpose/intent of the law

Define child abuse and neglect in California

Recognize signs of child maltreatment

Identify risk factors and red flags

Who are mandated reporters

When and how to report child abuse

What happens after a report is made




Dr c henry kempe battered child syndrome 1962
Dr . C. Henry Kempe“Battered Child Syndrome”1962




Child maltreatment ncands 2011
Child Maltreatment NCANDS 2011


Child welfare dynamic report 2009 2010
Child Welfare Dynamic Report 2009-2010

87,000 Substantiated Victims of Abuse and Neglect

http://cssr.berkeley.edu/ucb_childwelfare


Impact of child neglect
Impact of Child Neglect

The Still Face Experiment





Deciding when to report
Deciding When to Report report?

  • When one "has knowledge of or observes a child in his or her professional capacity, or within the scope of his or her employment whom he or she knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of child abuse or neglect..." (P.C. 11166 a)

  • If you suspect, REPORT!!!!

    • Proof of abuse is notrequired; that will be determined through investigation by the child welfare professionals or law enforcement


Defining child abuse and neglect
Defining Child Abuse and Neglect report?

Under the Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act (CANRA) when the victim is a child (anyone under the age of 18) and the perpetrator is any person (including a child) the following types of abuse must be reported:

  • Physical Abuse

  • Sexual Abuse

  • Neglect

  • Emotional Abuse



Physical abuse indicators
Physical Abuse Indicators report?

A statement by the child that the injury was caused by abuse


Motor development
Motor Development report?

  • Developmental abilities of a child should be considered when evaluating injuries

  • If a child is unable to roll over or crawl, they are unlikely to have sustained an injury on their own


Ear bruise
Ear Bruise report?



Grab marks
Grab Marks report?



Child sexual a buse
Child Sexual report?Abuse

Per CANRA, Child Sexual Abuse includes:

Sexual Assault

Sexual Exploitation






Why is it so hard to tell
Why is it so hard to tell? report?

  • Fear

    • Of perpetrator

    • Of being believed (consequences of disclosure)

    • Of not being believed

  • Shame

    • Revealing the secret

    • Sex is shameful/embarrassing subject

    • This hasn’t happened to anyone else

  • Guilt

    • Feel complicit in the abuse

    • Why didn’t you tell sooner/ run away/scream/make it stop??


Neglect
Neglect report?

Negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child by a person responsible for child’s welfare.

Includes- Acts and Omissions

The neglect either causes harm or threatens to harm the child’s health or welfare.


Severe neglect
Severe report?Neglect


General neglect no physical injury
General report?Neglect(No Physical Injury)


Neglect religious considerations
Neglect- Religious Considerations report?

  • Refusing medical care for religious reasons is a hotly debated topic when children are involved

  • Per CANRA, a child receiving treatment by spiritual means or not receiving specified medical treatment for religious reasons, shall not for that reason alone be considered a neglected child

  • An informed and appropriate medical decision made by a caregiver after consultation with a physician does not constitute neglect


Home environment indicators
Home Environment- Indicators report?

  • Medications, cleaners, toxins within reach of a child

  • Guns or other weapons that are not properly secured

  • Trash, rotted food, insects, or animal waste

  • Choking hazards within reach of an infant or toddler


Local resources
Local Resources report?

Enter in your own local resources


Local resources1
Local Resources report?

Enter in your own local resources


Local resources2
Local Resources report?

Enter in your own local resources




Risk Factors report?

Red Flags


Cultural considerations
Cultural Considerations report?

  • Race

  • Ethnicity

  • Gender

  • Sexuality

  • Class

  • Disability status

  • Immigra-tion status

  • Religion

  • Age

  • Nationality

  • Regionality

  • Language

  • Child-rearing practices

  • Gender-prescribed behavior

  • Family structure

  • Religious beliefs

  • Community characteristics

  • Worldview


Cultural considerations1
Cultural Considerations report?

  • Keep in mind cultural influences when assessing information or behavior.

  • Educate individuals/families from other cultures regarding American cultural expectations and practices.

  • However, if the practice falls within the legal definitions of child abuse, it must be reported.






Child red flags for abuse neglect
Child Red Flags for Abuse/Neglect report?

  • Anxiety

  • Depression

  • Self-mutilation, Suicidal gestures/attempts

  • Low self-esteem

  • Social maladjustment: Delinquent behavior (such as running away from home), use of alcohol or other drugs, academic/behavioral problems in school, poor peer relationships, aggressive behavior

  • Other significant behavioral changes


Other c oncerning behaviors
Other report?Concerning Behaviors

  • Wariness of adults

  • Discomfort when other children cry

  • Fear of parents or of going home. This may be demonstrated by a child who comes to school too early or does not want to leave at the end of the school day.

  • Wearing clothing inappropriate for the weather (though be aware that this may be a cultural issue as well)


Who are mandated reporters
Who Are Mandated Reporters? report?

Mandated reporters are individuals who are mandated by law to report known or suspected instances of child maltreatment

Over 40 categories listed in CANRA (P.C. 11165.7)

Primarily people who have regular contact with children through their employment


Deciding when to report1
Deciding When to Report report?

  • When one "has knowledge of or observes a child in his or her professional capacity, or within the scope of his or her employmentwhom he or she knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of child abuse or neglect..." (P.C. 11166 a)

  • If you suspect, REPORT!!!!

    • Proof of abuse is notrequired; that will be determined through investigation by the child welfare professionals or law enforcement


What is reasonable suspicion
What is “ report?Reasonable Suspicion”?

“…it is objectively reasonable for a person to entertain a suspicion, based upon facts that could cause a reasonable person in a like position, drawing, when appropriate, on his or her training and experience, to suspect child abuse or neglect.

"Reasonable suspicion" does not require certainty that child abuse or neglect has occurred nor does it require a specific medical indication of child abuse or neglect; any "reasonable suspicion" is sufficient.”

P.C. 11166 (a) (1)


When abuse is suspected
When Abuse is Suspected report?

  • Talking with children

    • Conduct the discussion in private

    • Sit next to the child, rather than behind a table or desk

    • Use language that the child understands

    • Allow the child to tell you of their experience in their own words; avoid asking leading or suggestive questions

    • Explore concerns to see if report is warranted- do not investigate!


When abuse is suspected1
When Abuse is Suspected report?

  • If a child discloses abuse

    • Control your emotional response, remain calm

    • Do not express shock, disapproval or disgust regarding the child, parent or disclosure

    • Be aware that the child may not show any particular emotion

    • Provide appropriate reassurance

      • He or she is not to blame for the abuse

      • He or she was brave/ deserves praise for having the courage to reveal the abuse

      • He or she is helping the family by seeking outside help

    • Let the child know what you will do as a result of the disclosure, explaining who you will tell and why.


When abuse is suspected2
When Abuse is Suspected report?

  • What (if anything) should you tell parents?

    • Things to consider

      • May increase risk to child

      • May interfere with investigation

      • Your ability to deal with reaction of parent(s)


Calling the report?

Child Abuse

Hotline


Who files the report
Who Files the Report? report?

  • Responsibility rests solely with the Mandated Reporter

  • Reporting to an employer, supervisor, school principal, school counselor, coworker, or other person is NOT adequate

  • When two or more mandated reporters jointly have knowledge of suspected child abuse or neglect, a single report may be made

    • Any member of the reporting team who has knowledge that the designated person has failed to report must do so.


By phone
By Phone… report?

  • Immediately (or as soon as practically possible) call your local CWS Hotline

  • Suspicions of child abuse/neglect should be reported to Child Welfare Services, who will cross-report to the appropriate LE agency

  • Law Enforcement (Police or Sheriff) may be contacted if there is immediate danger

    • Other law enforcement persons, such as school security, are not authorized to receive child abuse reports


Then in writing
…Then in Writing report?

  • Within 36 hours a written report must be sent to the child protective or law enforcement agency to which the telephone report was made

  • Must be filed on Department of Justice Form 8572 known as the Suspected Child Abuse Report (SCAR)

    • This form is available through county welfare departments and local law enforcement agencies

    • Forms and instructions also available online at

      http://ag.ca.gov/childabuse/pdf/ss_8572.pdf


8572 report?

Reporting Party’s information

  • Name

  • Date

  • Address

  • Phone


8572 report?

  • Information of person taking report

  • Name

  • Phone

  • Title

  • Address

  • Date


8572 report?

  • Victim’s Information

  • Name

  • DOB

  • Address

  • School

  • Present location

  • Language


8572 report?

  • Involved Parties

  • Siblings

  • Parents

  • Suspect


8572 report?

  • Incident Information

  • When and Where did the abuse occur?

  • What happened?



Immunity
Immunity report?






Child welfare services1
Child Welfare Services report?

  • Response time depends on the seriousness of the events reported, age of the child, the situation the child faces, and any known history that may influence the decision.

    • If the child is in danger, the response will be immediate and Law Enforcement may arrive before or accompany CWS.

    • If there is less risk involved, it may be three to ten days before action is taken by CWS


Possible outcomes
Possible Outcomes report?

  • Child is determined to be safe at home

  • Services may be offered to the family for support

  • Child remains home with a safety plan

  • Voluntary Services

  • Court-ordered services

  • Child determined unsafe at home

  • Child removed and placed in out-of-home care, preferably with a relative


Possible outcomes1
Possible Outcomes report?

  • The report is deemed either:

    • Unfounded - the report is determined to be false, to be inherently improbable, to involve an accidental injury, or not to constitute child abuse

    • Inconclusive - the report is not determined to be unfounded, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether child abuse or neglect has occurred.

    • Substantiated - the report is determined to constitute child abuse or neglect



Follow up
Follow-Up report?

  • Child protection workers and/or law enforcement officers may contact the reporter to gather additional information to aid in the investigation.

  • When the investigation is completed, the investigating agency shall inform the mandated reporter of the results of the investigation and of any action the agency is taking with regard to the child or family. (P.C. 11170 (b) (2))


Key points
Key Points report?


Key points1
Key Points report?



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