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  1. California Mandated Reporter Training

  2. QUESTIONS

  3. Objectives of MandatedReporter Training

  4. Dr. C. Henry Kempe“Battered Child Syndrome”1962

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act (CANRA) 1963- CA passed first reporting law- stated that Physicians must report physical abuse of children 1966-all states had child abuse reporting laws providing definitions, procedures, a list of mandated reporters and liability for failure to report. CANRAwas passed in 1980in California Has been amended throughout the years List of Mandated Reporters keeps expanding

  6. Child Maltreatment2010 2010

  7. Child MaltreatmentNCANDS 2010

  8. Child Welfare Dynamic Report2009-2010 87,000 Substantiated Victims of Abuse and Neglect http://cssr.berkeley.edu/ucb_childwelfare

  9. As a Mandated Reporter, why is it important to report child abuse?

  10. Defining Child Abuse and Neglect Under CANRA any suspicion of the following must be reported in California • Physical Abuse • Sexual Abuse • Emotional Abuse • Neglect When the victim is under the age of 18, and the perpetrator is any age

  11. CHILD ABUSE CAN CROSS ALL BARRIERS Child abuse or neglect can occur in any family, regardless of socio-economic status, sexual orientation, religion, education, ethnic background, or any other factor. Important to know that our cultural beliefs or stereotypes can affect our perceptions.

  12. Physical Abuse

  13. Physical Abuse anyinjury, even a small bruise in a very young infant is concerning Young infants are not mobile Completely dependent on their caregivers Any injury in this age group should raise concern for the possibility of inflicted injury

  14. Motor Development • Developmental abilities of a child should be considered when evaluating injuries • If a child is unable to roll over or crawl, they are unlikely to have sustained an injury on their own

  15. Physical Abuse Indicators • Bony areas – knees, shins, forehead (where kids fall) not as concerning

  16. Slap Mark

  17. Ear Bruise

  18. Marks from Objects

  19. Grab Marks

  20. Loop Mark from Cord

  21. Child Sexual Abuse Per CANRA, Child Sexual Abuse includes: Sexual Assault Sexual Exploitation

  22. Child Sexual Assault

  23. Reporting Consensual Sexual Intercourse M = mandated, must be reported based on age difference CJ = Clinical Judgment, the report is not mandated solely by age, but other factors may warrant reporting From “Understanding Confidentiality and Minor Consent in California” http://www.californiateenhealth.org/download/toolkit-rri-Web.pdf

  24. Sexual Exploitation

  25. Sexual Abuse - Disclosure

  26. Emotional Abuse Defined by CANRA as willful cruelty or unjustified punishment Includes: Inflicting or permitting physical pain or mental suffering Or permitting the endangerment of the child’s person or health

  27. Emotional Abuse

  28. Emotional Abuse For less severe acts, such as belittling or cruel words, it can be more difficult to determine what constitutes emotional abuse For the mandated reporter, reporting the concernisthe only requirement It is up to the child protective agency to decide if the act(s) in question are emotional abuse

  29. Neglect Negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child by a person responsible for child’s welfare. Includes- Acts and Omissions The neglect may cause harm to the child or just threaten to harm the child’s health or welfare. It is very important to be aware of economic factors and cultural norms.

  30. GeneralNeglect(No Physical Injury)

  31. SevereNeglect

  32. Neglect- Religious Considerations • Refusing medical care for religious reasons is a hotly debated topic when children are involved • Per CANRA, a child receiving treatment by spiritual means or not receiving specified medical treatment for religious reasons, shall not for that reason alone be considered a neglected child • An informed and appropriate medical decision made by a caregiver after consultation with a physician does not constitute neglect

  33. Home Environment- Indicators • Medications, cleaners, toxins within reach of a child • Guns or other weapons that are not properly secured • Trash, rotted food, insects, or animal waste • Choking hazards within reach of an infant or toddler

  34. Local Resources Enter in your own local resources

  35. Local Resources Enter in your own local resources

  36. Local Resources Enter in your own local resources

  37. Parent/Caretaker (CT) Behavioral Concerns (General)

  38. Parent/CT concernsfor Physical and/or Emotional Abuse

  39. Parent/CT Behaviors concerning for Neglect

  40. Child Behaviors concerningfor Physical and/or Emotional Abuse

  41. Child Behaviors concerningfor Physical and/or Emotional Abuse

  42. Child Behaviors concerningfor Sexual Abuse

  43. Child Behaviors concerningfor Sexual Abuse

  44. Child Behaviors concerningfor Neglect

  45. Who are Mandated Reporters?

  46. Who Are Mandated Reporters? Typically, people with regular contact with children • Teachers (public or private schools)‏ • Teachers’ aides/assistants • Any employee of a public or private school • Employees of youth centers • Employees of day care centers • Foster parent • Coaches

  47. Who Are Mandated Reporters? Health care personnel • Doctors, dentists, nurses and all medical personnel • Therapists, psychologists, social workers, mental health workers Public protection positions • Law enforcement • Probation • Firefighters • Child welfare

  48. The List Continues to Grow CA: Brown signs Child Abuse billSan Diego Union-Tribune, - September 25, 2012 Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill adding to the list of Mandated Reporters making it a crime for Coaches and Computer Technicians to fail to report suspected child abuse and child pornography. This legislation arose in the wake of Penn State.

  49. When Should a Report be Filed? • When one "has knowledge of or observes a child in his or her professional capacity, or within the scope of his or her employment whom he or she knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of child abuse or neglect..." (P.C. 11166 a) • If you suspect, REPORT!!!! • Proof of abuse is notrequired; that will be determined through investigation by the child welfare professionals or law enforcement

  50. What are some reasons why Mandated Reporters wouldn’t report?