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  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources

  2. CHAPTER 1ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

  3. What is Environmental Science? • Environment • Environmental Science • History of Environmental Science • utilitarian conservation • altruistic preservation

  4. CURRENT CONDITIONS • Planet Earth • Environmental Dilemmas • population • food shortages • energy • pollution

  5. A DIVIDED WORLD • Rich vs. Poor • North vs. South • Developed countries vs. undeveloped countries • First, Second, Third and Fourth World Countries

  6. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT • Human Development Index • Developmental Discrepancies • basic social services • education • health care • agrarian reform • employment • civil rights • sustainable resource use • Sustainable Development

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES • Neo-Malthusian • Technological optimists/Promethean environmentalism • “Cornucopian Fallacy” • Lessons from the Past

  8. CHAPTER 2TOOLS FOR BUILDING A BETTER WORLD

  9. Environmental Ethics and Philosophy • Universal Ethical Principles • Relativists • Nihilists • Utilitarians • Modernism & Postmodernism

  10. Values, Rights & Obligations • Morals • Animal Rights • Inherent Value • Instrumental Value

  11. Worldviews and Ethical Perspectives • Domination • Stewardship • Biocentrism • Ecofeminism

  12. Environmental Justice • Environmental racism • Toxic colonialism • Is Nature fragile or resilient?

  13. Science as a Way of Knowing • Scientific Method • Hypotheses Testing • Indirect Scientific Evidence • Technology and Progress • Appropriate Technology

  14. CHAPTER 3MATTER, ENERGY, AND LIFE

  15. From Atoms to Cells • Atoms • ions • atomic number • Molecules • compound • Organic Compounds • carbon • Cells

  16. Energy Types and Qualities • Kinetic Energy • heat • temperature • Potential Energy • Chemical Energy • Conservation of Matter • Thermodynamics • 1st law • 2nd law

  17. Energy for Life • Solar Energy • Photosynthesis • Chlorophyll • cellular respiration

  18. From Species to Ecosystems • Population • Communities • biological community • Ecosystems

  19. Food Chains • Productivity/biomass • Food chain/food web • Trophic level • producers • consumers • Organisms • herbivores • carnivores • omnivores

  20. Material Cycles and Life Processes • Carbon Cycle • Nitrogen Cycle • Phosphorus Cycle • Sulfur Cycle

  21. CHAPTER 4BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES AND SPECIES INTERACTION

  22. Critical Factors, Who Lives Where? • Temperature • Moisture levels • Nutrient supply • Soil chemistry • Water chemistry

  23. Natural Selection • Adaptation • Evolution • HABITAT

  24. SPECIES INTERACTIONS AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

  25. Predation • Predators • parasites • Pathogens • Prey

  26. Competition • Intraspecific competition • Interspecific competition • Territoriality

  27. Symbiosis • Commensalism • Mutualism

  28. Community Properties • Productivity • Abundance and Diversity • Complexity and Connectedness • Resilience and Stability • Structure • Edges and Boundaries

  29. Ecological Succession • Primary Succession • Secondary Succession • Pioneer Species • Ecological Development • Climax Community • Introduced Species and Community Change

  30. CHAPTER 5BIOMES, LANDSCAPES, RESOTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

  31. Terrestrial Biomes • Deserts • Grasslands • Prairies • Savannas • Tundra • Conifer Forests • Evergreen Forests • Tropical Forests • Tropical Seasonal Forests

  32. Aquatic Ecosystems • Freshwater and Saline Ecosystems • Estuaries and Wetlands • Shorelines and Barrier Islands • Coral reefs

  33. Landscape Ecology • Patchiness & Heterogeneity • Landscape Dynamics

  34. Restoration Ecology • Rehabilitation • Remediation • Reclamation • Re-creation • Nature, self-healing

  35. CHAPTER 6POPULATION DYNAMICS

  36. Population Growth • Exponential Growth • Geometric Growth • Arithmetic Growth • J Curve

  37. Population Oscillations and Irruptive Growth • Dieback • Overshoot • Irruptive or Malthusian growth

  38. Growth to a Stable Population • Logistic growth • Environmental resistance

  39. Strategies of Population Growth • Malthusian Strategies • Logistic Strategies

  40. Factors affecting Population • Natality, Fecundity, and Fertility • Immigration • Mortality and survivorship • Age Structure • Emigration • Education

  41. Factors Affecting Birth and Fertility Rates • Education/affluence • Importance of children to family labor force • Urbanization • Cost - raising and educating children • Education & Employment opportunity - women • Infant mortality rate • Average marriage age • Availability - pension • Birth control • Religious beliefs, tradition and culture

  42. Factors Affecting Death Rate • Nutrition • Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity • Health and technology

  43. Teen Pregnancy in the USA • Migration • Immigration

  44. Population Age Structure • Ways of classifying • Pre-reproductive age • Reproductive age • Post-reproductive age

  45. Solutions Influencing Population • Controlling Migration • Reducing Birth Rates • Economic development • Family planning • Economic rewards • Empowering women • Population Control Studies • India • China

  46. Population Distribution • Urbanization and Growth • The future is urban • Hyper-urbanization - LDCs • The United States and other MDC’s • Spatial patterns of development

  47. CHAPTER 7HUMAN POPULATIONS

  48. Population Growth • Birth Rates • Over-population • Technology and Ingenuity

  49. Limits to Population Growth • Malthusian checks • Karl Marx • Neo-Malthusian • Technology solutions? • Can More people be Beneficial?

  50. Human Demography • Fertility • Birthrate • Zero population growth • Mortality and death rates • Population growth rates • Life span and life expectancy • dependency ratio • Emigration and Immigration