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Prokaryotic cell reproduction Binary Fission. Eukaryotic Cell Cycle. Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction: Mitosis & Meiosis. Mitosis : cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells. This makes identical copies (clones)

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction: Mitosis & Meiosis

Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement of

cells. This makes identical copies (clones)

Meiosis: cell reproduction for the production of gametes,

such as egg and sperm (sex cells)

How many chromosomes in a human cell such as a skin cell?

How many chromosomes in egg and sperm?

human karyotype
Human Karyotype

Is this person male or female?

slide5

46

chromosomes

46

chromosomes

replication

46

46

chromatids

chromatids

46

46

chromosomes

chromosomes

23

23

23

23

Mitosis

One division

Meiosis

Two divisions

chromosomes

mitosis cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells this makes identical copies clones
Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells. This makes identical copies (clones)

What are some examples of mitosis in the body?

  • Cuts and scrapes
  • Embryonic growth
  • Aging
  • Stomach cells

What are some examples of mitosis in other organisms?

  • Asexual reproduction (budding and fragmentation)
  • Plants: growth of roots and stems
  • Regeneration (starfish arm, lizard tail)
slide7

46

chromosomes

46

chromosomes

replication

46

46

chromatids

chromatids

46

46

chromosomes

chromosomes

23

23

23

23

Mitosis

One division

Meiosis

Two divisions

chromosomes

sister chromatids
Sister Chromatids

centromere

DNA Replication

Chromosome

Sister Chromatids

phases in mitosis
Phases in Mitosis
  • Interphase: DNA replication
  • Prophase: chromosomes thicken, nucleus disappears
  • Metaphase: chromosomes line up at center
  • Anaphase: centromeres split, sister chromatids separate
  • Telophase: cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm
applications of mitosis
Applications of Mitosis?

Cancer = abnormal

growth of cells

control of the cell cycle
Control of the Cell Cycle

MPF

is a protein

that triggers

mitosis.

Where is MPF

in high amounts

and in low

amounts?

regulation of cell cycle
Regulation of Cell Cycle
  • What controls cell reproduction?
  • MPF = Maturation Promoting FactorMPF = cyclin + cdk (cdc2)Protein Kinase = activates other proteinsi.e. spindle fibers that move chromosomes
  • Two functions of MPF:1. triggers mitosis2. activates enzymes to breakdown cyclin (negative feedback)
cancer
Cancer
  • Transformation = process that converts a normal cell to a cancer cell
  • Tumor = loss of cell cycle control = abnormal growth of cells
  • Benign = noncancerous, Malignant = cancerous
  • Metastasis = spread rate of a malignant cancer to locations other than their origin

(tumor cells enter blood vessels and travel to other parts of the body)

meiosis cell reproduction for the production of gametes such as egg and sperm sex cells
Meiosis: cell reproduction for the production of gametes, such as egg and sperm (sex cells)
  • Meiosis cuts the number of chromosomes in half
  • Meiosis occurs in gonads
  • Gonads are reproductive organs (such as ovaries and testes)
  • 2 divisions1st Meiotic division 2nd Meiotic divisionInterphase Prophase IIProphase I Metaphase II
  • Metaphase I Anaphase IIAnaphase I Telophase IITelophase I
homologous pair homologous chromosomes
Homologous Pair (Homologous Chromosomes)
  • Chromosomes that carry genes in the same place for the same traits
  • One is maternal in origin (from the egg)
  • The other is paternal in origin (from the sperm)

Hair color

Eye color

hitchikers

earlobes

Skin tone

widow’s

1 st meiotic division
1st Meiotic Division
  • Interphase: DNA replication
  • Prophase I: crossing over
  • Metaphase I: independent assortment
  • Anaphase I: homologous pairs separate, centromeres intact
  • Telophase I: cytokinesis
2 nd meiotic division
2nd Meiotic Division
  • Prophase II: reorganization, no crossing over
  • Metaphase II: chromosomes line up with centromere on line
  • Anaphase II: centromere splits, sister chromatids separate
  • Telophase II: cytokinesis