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CO 2 Capture Status - Post-combustion - Pre-combustion (IGCC) - Oxy-combustion. Westar Spring Business Meeting Incline, NV April 7, 2009 George Offen Sr. Technical Executive Emissions & Combustion Products for Richard Rhudy Technical Executive CO 2 Capture and Storage.

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co 2 capture status post combustion pre combustion igcc oxy combustion

CO2 Capture Status- Post-combustion- Pre-combustion (IGCC)- Oxy-combustion

Westar Spring Business Meeting

Incline, NV

April 7, 2009

George Offen

Sr. Technical Executive

Emissions & Combustion Products

for

Richard Rhudy

Technical Executive

CO2 Capture and Storage

pulverized coal with co 2 capture integration issues

CO2 to use or Sequestration

Fresh Water

CO2

Removal

e.g., MEA

Coal

PC

Boiler

Flue Gas

to Stack

SCR

ESP

FGD

Air

Fly Ash

Gypsum/Waste

Steam

Turbine

Pulverized Coal With CO2 Capture –Integration Issues

Output Penalty: Up to 30% Today

CO2 to Cleanup

and Compression

Cleaned Flue Gas to Atmosphere

  • CO2 capture needs
    • Ultra-low SO2, NO2, PM
    • Much energy for stripper
    • Big space
  • Maximizing MW, efficiency requires optimal thermal integration
  • Three U.S. small plants in operation today
    • Largest = 300 t CO2/d recovered on 35 MW plant

CO2Stripper

Absorber Tower

Flue Gas from Plant

CO2 Stripper Reboiler

oxy combustion capture status
Oxy-Combustion Capture Status

Source: Vattenfall

  • No Commercial Power Plants use Oxy-Combustion today, but:
  • Several pilot scale (~1 MW) test units operating
  • Vattenfall 30 MWth pilot plant operating
  • B&W 30 MWth test facility in Ohio
igcc with and without co 2 removal

Sulfur

Coal

Gas Clean Up

CC Power Block

POWER

Air

ASU

Gasifier

O2

Slag

Sulfur

CO2

Coal

CC Power Block

Gas Clean Up

ASU

Gasifier

Shift

Air

POWER

O2

H2

Slag

IGCC With and Without CO2 Removal

IGCC no CO2 capture

  • IGCC and CO2 removal offered commercially:
    • Have not operated in an integrated manner
  • Three U.S. non-power facilities capture CO2
    • Coffeyville
    • Eastman
    • Great Plains
  • Many coal gasification plants in China recover CO2
  • Great Plains recovered CO2 used for EOR:
    • 2.7 million tons CO2 per year
    • ~340 MWe if it were an IGCC

IGCC with CO2 capture

CO2 Capture = $, Space, Shift, H2 Firing, CO2 Removal, Energy

co 2 capture may be doable today but
CO2Capture May Be Doable Today, But….
  • Would increasecost of electricity (COE) significantly
    • 60-80% increase versus SCPC with no capture
      • Cost increase for IGCC less than SCPC, but IGCC base cost higher
  • Would be risky – lack of experience
  • Concerted RD&D effort expected to decrease cost, energy impacts dramatically
unarticulated limits on some co 2 capture concepts
Unarticulated Limits on Some CO2 Capture Concepts

Second Law Violators

CO2 fuels needs energy source – more than get back

Sometimes do not account for overall total CO2 footprint

Real Estate Moguls

Biological processes use solar energy for CO2 conversion, but need 45 miles2 for 500 MW plant

Solar energy likely better used to make electricity directly instead of converting CO2 in non-biological processes

Massive Material Mismatch (once-through capture)

Limited global supply of chemicals to capture CO2 or make saleable products

Limited use of CO2 directly

Gold mine  CO2 solution

Successful economic propositions may not make dent in power CO2

epri finding many processes being developed for post combustion co 2 capture

Carbon Capture Technology Groups

Absorption

Adsorption

Membranes

Biological

Other

  • Amines (many)
  • Carbonates
  • Ammonia
  • Hydroxide
  • Limestone
  • Metal Organics
  • Zeolites
  • Fibers
  • Microporous
  • Algae
  • Micro-algae
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Mineralization
  • Cold Separation
EPRI Finding Many Processes Being Developed for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture

~ 30 processes found 2/07 (Report #1012796)

> 50 processes now (Report #1016995)

  • No breakthrough technologies (~10% energy penalty)
  • Potentially interesting concepts surfaced recently
need multiple

2007

2010

2015

2020

2025

Need Multiple:

Capture Demos – Risk Management, CompetitionStorage Demos – Understanding thru Different Geologies

2005

2010

2015

2020

Pilots

1.7 MW

We Energies Chilled Ammonia Pilot

Other Pilots (Post-Combustion and Oxy-Combustion)

20 MW chilled ammonia

scale-up with storage

Ion Transport Membrane O2 Scale-up

25 MW advanced amine with storage

AEP Mountaineer

Southern/SSEB Ph. III

Demonstration

Other Demonstrations

125-200 MW follow-ons? Partial integration, EOR &/or storage

IGCC + CCS Projects

Integration

UltraGen, others

Oxy-Combustion

Goals – Affordable, Energy Efficient, Accepted

1 7 mwe alstom chilled ammonia pilot at we energies critical step to demonstrate new technology
Commissioning tests underway

> 3500 h of operation

Parametric/long-term tests start in 2Q09

1.7 MWe Alstom Chilled Ammonia Pilot at We Energies: Critical Step To Demonstrate New Technology

Courtesy of Alstom

demos post combustion ccs
Demos – Post-Combustion CCS
  • AEP Chilled Ammonia CCS
    • ~20-MW capture module at Mountaineer plant; design will build on 1.7-MW Pleasant Prairie pilot results
    • Injection ~100,000 TPY into two on-site wells
  • Southern Co. Advanced Amine CCS
    • ~25-MW capture module at Southern Company plant
    • Injection (~150,000 TPY) and storage test funded/ conducted by DOE “SECARB” regional partnership
  • Other announced projects
    • Powerspan ECO2, ~125 MW, mostly EOR
      • Basin Electric Antelope Valley
      • NRG WA Parish
    • Chilled Ammonia at TransAlta, ~125 MW
    • HTC Purenergy – Canadian site TBA
    • Siemens amino acid salt – Site TBA
    • 10-12 being “discussed” in Europe; others in Australia, Canada, China, Japan
igcc with ccs three project program
IGCC with CCS – Three-project Program

Demonstrate technical and economic viability of advanced coal power plants with CCS

  • Project 1
    • 300,000 TPY CO2
    • Slipstream at existing site
    • Single-stage water-gas shift
  • Project 2
    • 1 MTPY CO2/yr @ planned site
    • CO2 capture from unshifted syngas ( “skimming”)
  • Project 3
    • ~3.5 MTPY @ new site
    • Fully-shifted syngas-based CO2 capture (“full capture”)
advanced boiler initiatives
Advanced Boiler Initiatives
  • UltraGen – competitive advanced pulverized coal with CCS
    • Commercial project with demonstration elements
      • Possible = E.ON-UK 300-MW CO2 capture
        • New 800-MW ultra-supercritical (620oC)
        • Expected online 2012
    • High efficiency to reduce CO2> 20%
    • Near-zero emissions
    • Integrated CO2 capture at 90%
  • Oxy-combustion – Jamestown BPU
    • 43-MWe CFB with CCS
    • 98% CO2 capture
    • Near-zero emissions of criteria pollutants
    • Commercially-dispatched unit in service by 2013
    • Scalable to 600 MW
summary
Summary
  • Types of capture systems
    • Boilers: >50 concepts, ~ 6 physical/chemical process types
    • IGCC: 2 commercially used in non-power applications
    • Oxy-firing: water separation, need to remove O2, SO2, NOx?
  • Timelines
    • Potential for commercial availability by 2020
  • Hurdles to overcome
    • Energy, cost penalty
    • Lack of experience at scale, with coal, in power systems
  • Projects in operation, planned
    • Operation -- 1.7 MW at We Energies
    • Under construction – 20 MW at AEP
    • Planned – ~20 in North America, Europe, Asia
  • Lessons learned – No breakthru’s,
  • Next steps (ongoing) – incremental developments & breakthru search
most developed technologies on coal 1 mw size location
Most Developed Technologies on Coal >1 MW(size, location)
  • Amine
    • Fluor MEA (None)
    • MHI Amine (1 MW, Japan)
    • Aker Amine (None)
    • HTC Amine (None)
    • Cansolv Amine (None)
    • Emerging – Alstom/Dow, Siemens
  • Ammonia
    • Alstom Chilled Ammonia (1.7 MW, USA)
    • Powerspan ECO2 (1 MW, USA)