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PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Using Light to Make Food. Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because:. It provides food for virtually all organisms SWEET!!!!. BIG PICTURE: Photosynthesis .

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photosynthesis

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Using Light to Make Food

photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because
Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because:
  • It provides food for virtually all organisms
  • SWEET!!!!
big picture photosynthesis
BIG PICTURE: Photosynthesis

Light energy is used to make sugarand other food molecules from carbon dioxide and water

chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction

sunlight

  • 6 H2O + 6 CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6 O2

How does this equation compare to the cell respiration one?

Photosynthesis: An Overview of Photosynthesis (click)

7 1 autotroph
7.1 AUTOTROPH
  • Autotrophs“Self-feeders”
  • Make their own food
  • Also referred to as: Producers= produce the biosphere’s food supply
photosynthetic plants
Photosynthetic Plants

Forests (land)

Kelp (ocean)

Diatoms

(microscopic)

1 stoma sing in leaf lower epidermis
Is the opening

carbon dioxide,oxygen. And water in/out

1. Stoma (sing.) in leaf lower epidermis

Stomata (pl.)

leaf cs
Leaf CS

2. Upper Epidermis

4. Mesophyll-cells containing chloroplasts

3. Lower epidermis

Covers and protects

see stoma –in lower epidermis only

4 mesophyll
4. Mesophyll
  • = Palisade Layer + Spongy Layer
5 cuticle
5. Cuticle

Waxy, waterproof coating (to retain H2O)

6 palisade layer
6. Palisade Layer
  • cylindrical cells, vertically oriented, closely packed
7 spongy layer
7. Spongy Layer
  • cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed

O2 ,CO2, H20 vapor go in/out

8 guard cells control stomata
8. Guard Cells Control Stomata
  • Full guard cells(turgid) opens the stoma.
  • Flaccid (lost water) guard cells, the stoma closes.
  • ANIMATION: Stoma
  • What causes them to open?What goes into the stomata?
9 plant vein xylem phloem
9. Plant Vein: Xylem + Phloem

Xylem-(blue) carries water

Phloem (thicker cell wall)-(yellow) carries food

guard cells animations
Guard Cells Animations
  • LabBench (guard cell animation)
  • Another animation of opening and closing of guard cells

http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio111/animations/0021.swf (really nice)

water movement
Water Movement
  • LINK: http://www.sciencemag.org/sciext/vis2005/show/transpiration.swf
photosynthesis in elodea lab
Photosynthesis in Elodea Lab

See oxygen bubbles coming from the Elodea

What conditions are best?

elodea bubbles movie
Elodea Bubbles Movie
  • sLowlife Exhibit
chloroplast diagram
Stroma = thick fluid between the thylakoids

thylakoids = disks within the chloroplasts

granum=stack of thylakoids (grana pl.)

Chloroplast Diagram
grana
GRANA
  • What is the difference between grana and granum?
stroma
STROMA
  • So what’s the difference between the stoma and the stroma?
  • STOMA = opening in lower epidermis
  • STROMA = area around thylakoid disks in the chloroplast
chloroplast diagram28
Chloroplast Diagram

Stromal lamella = connect grana

D. Outer Membrane

Thylakoid membrane

Inner Membrane

Thylakoid space

Intermembrane Space

nice little photosynthesis movies
Nice Little Photosynthesis Movies
  • VCAC: Cellular Processes: Photosynthesis: The Movie
  • VCAC: Cellular Processes: Photosystem II: The Movie
what happens here
Light Dependent Reaction (LDR)

Converts light energy to chemical energy + O2

Light Independent Reaction (LIR)

Assembles sugar molecules using CO2

What happens here?
where does energy come from
Light Dependent Reaction LDR

Uses light energy

Light Independent Reaction LIR

(Calvin Cycle)

uses ATP and NADPH (from LDR)

Where does energy come from?
psi and psii
PSI and PSII
  • PSI and PSII animation
  • Another PSI and PSII animation
where is it located in the cell
LDR

occurs in thylakoid membranes of chloroplast’s grana

LIR (aka Calvin cycle)

occurs in stroma of chloroplast

Where is it located in the cell?
final products of each
LDR

ATP and NADPH

Also O2

LIR

sugar

Final Products of Each?
new vocab word
NEW VOCAB. WORD
  • Carbon fixation =
  • incorporation of carbon into an organic molecule (useable)
  • EXAMPLE: CO2 into C6H12O6

FIXATION = make in a usable form

light
LIGHT
  • CHLOROPHYLL
pigments in plants
Pigments in Plants
  • Pigments are light-absorbing molecules
  • Different pigments absorb or reflect different colors
chlorophyll a
wavelengths absorbed:

blue-violet andred

Reflects: grass green

Chlorophyll a

Wavelength

chlorophyll b
Absorbs: blue and orange

Reflects: yellow-green

An accessory chlorophyll in plants

Chlorophyll b
other pigments in plants
Absorb: blue-green

Reflect: yellow-orange

Other pigments in plants

Carotenoids-orange

fyi why do leaves change color
As fall comes there are shorter days of sunlight

Less photosynthesis means less food for plants.

Chlorophyll breaks down and exposes the other colors that were there all along, but were masked by the green chlorophyll.

FYI Why do leaves change color?
do worksheet
DO WORKSHEET
  • “Absorption of Chlorophyll”
  • Photosynthesis: The Action Spectrum for Photosynthesis (experiment link)
7 7 electromagnetic
7.7Electromagnetic
  • Photosynthesis: Electromagnetic Energy
  • (move the arrow)
1 what are
#1 What are…

PHOTONS

  • Fixed quantity (packet) of energy
waves
WAVES

Distance between crests of two waves

Λ = symbol for wavelength

light travels as waves and as photons
Light travels as waves and as photons
  • “Wave-particle theory”
photons
PHOTONS
  • Smallest unit of light emitted when an electron jumps to a more excited state
  • named by Einstein

light

shorter the wavelength
Shorter the wavelength...

The greater the energy

2 when an e in a pigment absorbs a photon
#2 When an e- in a pigment absorbs a photon...
  • Electron goes from “ground state” to “excited state”
energy from the sun
Energy from the sun
  • ANIMATION:Atomic absorption diagram (how energy causes an electron to jump levels)
3 excited state is very unstable
#3 Excited State is Very Unstable
  • As e- falls back to the ground state it might:
  • lose energy as heat
  • emit light
  • gives off a photon
  • IN A CHLOROPHYLL MOLECULE IT WILL …
3 4 chlorophyll passes its photon to
#3 + #4 Chlorophyll passes its photon to:
  • A neighboring molecule called theprimary electron acceptor
pigments in a photosystem light rxn
Pigments in a Photosystem (Light RXN)

reaction center

Figure 7.11Page 122

light capturing antenna
“Light capturing Antenna”
  • Transfer light energy to the reaction center
cyclic electron flow light rxn
Cyclic Electron Flow (Light RXN)

e–

electron acceptor

Electron flow through transfer chain sets up conditions for ATP formation at other membrane sites.

electron transfer chain

e–

e–

ATP

e–

Figure 7.12Page 122

5 two photosystems ps i and ps ii absorbs wavelength ps i p 700 nm ps ii p 680 nm
#5 TWO photosystems: PS I and PS II:absorbs λ(λ = wavelength)PS I -P 700 nmPS II -P 680 nm
animations
Animations
  • P700 and P680 Animation
  • Making ATP and NADPH (Light Dependent Reaction)
7 8 in light reaction etc generates atp nadph o 2
7.8 In light reaction: ETC generates ATP, NADPH, O2

1. Light energy is absorbed

2. Electrons excited

3. Energy from ETC used to make ATP and NADPH

2 ps ii breaking up water
#2 PS II: Breaking up water
  • The P680 requires an electron, which is taken from a water molecule, breaking the water into H+ ions and O-2 ions.
  • These form the O2 that is released.
  • 2 H2O 02 + 4e- + 4H+
what process drives each
NADPH forming

ATP forming

O2 formation

Redox and ETC

Chemiosmosis

Redox and ETC

What process drives each?
note final electron acceptor is
NOTE: Final Electron Acceptor is
  • NADPH
  • Not Oxygen (Oxygen is given off) in Light Reaction of Photosynthesis
animation
Animation
  • Making Oxygen (You’ll love the noises)
  • (I hate ‘em)
chemiosmosis again
Chemiosmosis Again
  • #1 Remember chemiosmosis in cellular respiration, well, here it is again.
7 9 3
7.9 #3
  • There would now be more H+ ions located:
  • Came from the stroma and went to the thylakoid interior
7 9 4
7.9 #4
  • The H+ ions move through what port to move back into the stroma?
  • ATP synthase
5 photophosphorylation
#5 Photophosphorylation
  • is the process of converting energy from a light-excited electron into the phosphate bond of an ADPmolecule into ATP.
  • This occurs when the electrons from water are excited by the light in the presence of P680.
calvin cycle
CALVIN CYCLE
  • Or the LIR
can the calvin cycle also be called the dark reaction
Can the Calvin Cycle also be called the “dark reaction?”
  • PEANUT: It does not need light to run, but it can also run during light. So…the “dark cycle” term is not used anymore.
animation85
Animation
  • Noncyclic photophosphorylation
  • (THIS ONE IS MY FAVORITE) Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation (first one is very detailed, second one is better for HS)
  • Photosynthetic ETC and ATP Synthesis
view me
View Me
  • Photosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis
step 1 carbon fixation
Step 1: Carbon Fixation
  • RUBISCO ENZYME combines 3 molecules of CO2 withribulose bisphosphate (5-C) RuBP makes 6-C
2 g3p
“Glyceraldehyde- 3 phosphate”

the energy-rich molecule made in the Calvin cycle

it can be used to make glucose or other organic molecules

#2 G3P
slide91
#3
  • The enzyme rubisco combines with CO2 to form 3-C molecule, 3PGA
slide92
#4
  • It takes 6 turns to make one glucose molecle
regeneration of rubp
Regeneration of RuBP
  • Energy from ATP is used to reform RuBP molecules (hey, its recyclable!)
quiz time structures
QUIZ TIME: structures
  • The light reactions (LDR) of photosynthesis occur in the __________, and the Calvin cycle (LIR) occus in the __________ of the chloroplast.
answer
ANSWER
  • The light reaction occurs in the thylakoid membranes and the dark reaction occurs in the stroma.
which equation summarizes photosynthesis
Which equation summarizes photosynthesis?
  • A. water + starch ---> glucose + glucose + glucoseB. water + carbon dioxide ---> oxygen + glucose + waterC. glucose + oxygen ---> water + carbon dioxide + ATPD. glucose + glucose ---> maltose + water
answer101
ANSWER
  • B. water + carbon dioxide ---> oxygen + glucose + water
in what organelle does photosynthesis occur
In what organelle does photosynthesis occur?
  • A. the nucleusB. chloroplastsC. the vacuoleD. the cell wall
answer103
ANSWER
  • B. Chloroplast
question
QUESTION:
  • Four identical plants are grown under different colored light bulbs. Under which color will the release of oxygen gas be slowest?A. Green
  • B. blueC. orangeD. red
answer105
ANSWER:
  • A. Green
quiz time
QUIZ TIME
  • The reason why ADP + P form ATP in thylakoid membranes is…
  • A movement of electrons between photosystem II and photosystem I.
  • B oxidation of water
  • C oxidation of NADPH
  • D absorption of photons by chloroplast pigments
  • E higher concentration of H+ inside versus outside the thylakoid membranes
answer107
ANSWER
  • E. a higher concentration of H+ ions inside vs. outside the thylakoid membranes
quiz time108
QUIZ TIME
  • Water is broken down and the electrons from water pass through photosystem II and photosystem I before adding e- to:
  • A carbon dioxide
  • B NADP+
  • C plastoquinones
  • D FAD
  • E rubisco
answer109
ANSWER
  • NADP+ to make higher energy NADPH
quiz time110
QUIZ TIME
  • Which of the following would have the smallest effect on the rate of photosynthesis in a green plant?A. carbon dioxide concentrationB. light intensityC. oxygen concentrationD. water available
answer111
ANSWER:
  • C. oxygen concentration
quiz time112
QUIZ TIME
  • During photosynthetic electron transport, the interior compartment of the thylakoid membranes becomes:
  • A. more concentrated with ATP
  • B. more concentrated with H+ ions
  • C. less concentrated with H+ ions
hint distribution of h ions
Light Rx

more inside

Dark Rx

Even in and out

HINT: Distribution of H+ ions
answer114
ANSWER
  • More concentrated with H+ ions
quiz time115
QUIZ TIME
  • Which of the following is produced during photosynthesis?A. carbon dioxideB. lactic acidC. DNAD. PGAL
answer116
ANSWER
  • D. PGAL
quiz time117
QUIZ TIME
  • Atmospheric oxygen that is inhaled by animals comes from:A. carbon dioxide molecules split during the light reactionsB. carbon dioxide split during the dark reactionsC. water molecules split during the light reactionsD. water molecules split during the dark reactions
answer118
ANSWER
  • C. water molecules split during the light reactions
quiz time119
QUIZ TIME
  • What change occurs during photosynthesis?A. solar energy is converted to chemical energyB. kinetic energy is converted to chemical energyC. chemical energy is converted to radiant energyD. water is converted to chemical energy
answer120
ANSWER
  • A. solar energy is converted to chemical energy
slide122

A=cuticle

B=Upper epidermis

C=Vein

D=Phloem

E=xylem

F=Palisade layer

G=spongy layer

H=guard cell

I=stomata

quiz time123
QUIZ TIME
  • The overall source of energy for photosynthesis is:
  • A. energy from the sun
  • B. energy from ATP
  • C. energy when oxygen is produced
answer124
ANSWER
  • A. energy from the sun
quiz time125
QUIZ TIME
  • What three events occur during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
    • Forming ATP
    • NADP+ to NADPH
    • Fixing CO2
    • Releasing O2
answer126
ANSWER
  • Forming ATP
  • NADP+ to NADPH
  • Releasing O2
quiz time127
QUIZ TIME
  • Which of the following does not happen in photosystem I?
    • ATP is produced
    • electron transport in the thylakoid membranes
    • light energy is used
    • NADPH is formed
answer which is not
ANSWER (which is NOT)
  • NADPH is formed
quiz time130
QUIZ TIME
  • Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
    • Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
    • Stroma of chloroplasts
    • Matrix of mitochondria
    • Inner membrane of mitochondria
answer131
ANSWER
  • Stroma of chloroplasts
quiz time132
QUIZ TIME
  • What is the name of the enzyme that causes CO2 to form glucose?
    • ATPase
    • glucosease
    • rubisco
answer133
ANSWER
  • rubisco
quiz time134
QUIZ TIME
  • What two high energy compounds are required for this reaction?
    • ATP
    • NADH
    • NADPH
    • ADP
    • FADH
answer135
ANSWER
  • ATP and NADPH
quiz time136
QUIZ TIME
  • What is the name of the process in which carbon dioxide is made into glucose?
    • Krebs cycle
    • Calvin cycle
    • Einstein cycle
answer137
ANSWER
  • CALVIN CYCLE
  • (or sometimes the Calvin-Bensen Cycle)
quiz time138
QUIZ TIME
  • Which does NOT happen in the Dark Reaction:
    • using ATP
    • using NADPH
    • using Carbon Dioxide
    • making water
answer139
ANSWER
  • MAKING WATER
quiz time140
QUIZ TIME
  • What are the products of the dark reaction?
    • ATP
    • ADP
    • glucose
    • CO2
    • NADP+
answer141
ANSWER
  • ADP
  • NADP+
  • glucose
quiz time142
QUIZ TIME
  • The reason why ADP + P form ATP in thylakoid membranes is…

A movement of electrons between photosystem II and photosystem I.

B oxidation of water

C oxidation of NADPH

D absorption of photons by chloroplast pigments

E higher concentration of H+ inside versus outside the thylakoid membranes

answer143
ANSWER
  • a higher concentration of H+ ions inside vs. outside the thylakoid membranes
quiz time144
QUIZ TIME
  • During photosynthetic electron transport, the interior compartment of the thylakoid membranes becomes:
  • A. more concentrated with ATP
  • B. more concentrated with H+ ions
  • C. less concentrated with H+ ions
answer145
ANSWER
  • More concentrated with H+ ions
quiz time146
QUIZ TIME
  • The overall source of energy for photosynthesis is:
  • A. energy from the sun
  • B. energy from ATP
  • C. energy when oxygen is produced
answer147
ANSWER
  • A. energy from the sun
quiz time148
QUIZ TIME
  • What three events occur during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
    • Forming ATP
    • NADP+ to NADPH
    • Fixing CO2
    • Releasing O2
answer149
ANSWER
  • Forming ATP
  • NADP+ to NADPH
  • Releasing O2
quiz time150
QUIZ TIME
  • What is the name of the process in which carbon dioxide is made into glucose?
    • Krebs cycle
    • Calvin cycle
    • Einstein cycle
answer151
ANSWER
  • CALVIN CYCLE
  • (or sometimes the Calvin-Bensen Cycle)