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PHOTOSYNTHESIS Class Notes PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is ability of a plant to turn sunlight, air, and water into sugar (energy).

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photosynthesis

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

ClassNotes

photosynthesis2
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • Photosynthesis is ability of a plant to turn sunlight, air, and water into sugar (energy).
  • The overall reaction is: light chlorophyll CO2+ H2O -------> CH2O + O2
  • Photosynthesis is vital to life for two reasons
slide3

1. The oxygen in the air comes from

  • photosynthesis. The plants continue to
  • replenish the oxygen in the air.
  • 2. All of our food comes directly or
  • indirectly from photosynthesis.
slide4

Parts of a leaf

Stomata

palisade layer

spongy layer

veins

chloroplast

thylakoids

grana

stroma

slide6

The Chloroplast

-double membrane, stroma, thylakoid, grana

light
Light
  • Photosynthesis uses visible light.
    • Only visible light with intermediate wavelengths has enough energy to cause chemical change without destroying biological molecules.
  • What are the colors of the visible spectrum?
  • Why does a leaf look green?
slide9

.

  • Light is captured by pigments. The main photosynthetic pigment is chlorophyll. There is chlorophyll a, b and c. Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment and is found in all photosynthetic plants, protist, and cyanobacteria
carotenoids
Carotenoids

Carotenoids are accessory pigments found in all green plants. They absorb blue and green wavelengths and give a plant a yellow or orange color. In the fall when chlorophyll breaks down, it is the accessory pigments which give colors of fall. The red color of some autumn leaves is due to the anthocyanin pigments. These are not photosynthetic.

the energy capturing reactions
The Energy-Capturing Reactions
  • Light absorption
    • Chlorophyll a and b are antennae pigments
  • Electron transport
    • Electrons lost by chlorophyll a end up at NADP
    • Produce oxygen
  • Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis
    • Powered by H ion reservoir
slide16
The Dark reactions use more ATP then NADPH.
  • Each turn of the cycle uses 9 ATP and only 6 NADPH.
  • How are more ATP acquired than NAPH since one ATP is produced in photosystem II and one NADPH is produced in photosystem I?
  • Cyclic and noncyclic electron flow
the dark reactions
The Dark Reactions
  • The dark reactions take place outside the thylakoid membrane in the stroma. The Calvin Cycle converts CO2 to sugar in a three phase process.
    • Carbon fixation- The carbon dioxide is incorporated into an organic molecule (1C + 5C = 6C) called RuBP by the enzyme Rubisco. This 6 carbon structure is unstable and immediately splits into 2, 3 carbon molecules. This is the same molecule that glucose is split into.
slide20
Reduction – Each 3 carbon molecule is phosphorylated by ATP and NAPH to create G3P. The cycle must turn 3 times for a net gain of one molecule of G3P.
  • Regeneration of CO2 acceptor – The rearrangement of 5 molecules of G3P into 3 molecules of RuBP required 3 more ATP.

( 9 ATP and 6 NADPH yields 1 G3P)

slide27

What controls photosynthesis?

  • Intensity of light
  • Scarcity of water
ecological aspects
Ecological Aspects
  • C4 PLANTS - Use more ATP but at high temperatures they can photosynthesize faster -allowing plants to grow and reproduce faster. These include many weeds and important crops such as corn.
  • A special variation of C4 plants are the CAM plants. These are mostly desert plants. These plants keep the stomata closed during the day and open at night. They must conserve water!
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Glossary of terms
    • blade
    • stipules
    • petiole
    • vein
    • midrib
slide30

Vocabulary

NADP+

NADPH

photon

photosystem

photosystem I

photosystem II

pigment

stroma

thylakoid

carotenoids

chlorophyll

electromagnetic spectrum

granum