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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis

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  1. Photosynthesis Chapter 4

  2. Where does all of our energy come from? THE SUN

  3. How do plants get food? • Photosynthesis- Process by which green plants or organism with chlorophyll convert _______ energy into _____________ energy in the bonds of carbohydrates • ________________ – Can transfer energy to produce food – can synthesize food • _________________ – Must obtain energy from preformed food – gotta eat food! chemical light Autotrophic Heterotrophic

  4. THE FORMULA _____________________ ________________ chlorophyll carbon dioxide + water + light glucose + oxygen enzymes • Seems simple, huh? • Takes EIGHTY different chemical reactions from start to finish

  5. Where does Photosynthesis happen? chloroplasts • In the _________________! • Chloroplasts are oval structure consisting of stacks called grana (photosynthetic membranes) and a liquid called stroma. • Chlorophyll is found in the stacked grana

  6. ATP • When chlorophyll absorbs light, it is absorbing energy • It stores it in the __________ of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) bonds

  7. ATP v ADP

  8. Section 4.1 Review • What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? • How are ADP and ATP related? • What are the reactants of photosynthesis? The products? Autotroph—makes own food Heterotroph—needs to eat food ADP is missing a phosphate (and energy) ATP has all 3 phosphate and lots of energy They go back and forth carbon dioxide + water + light glucose + oxygen

  9. 2 Main steps of PS • Light reactions—occurs only in the presence of ___________ • Occurs in the grana (thylakoids) of the chloroplasts • Also known as Photolysisbecause light is used to __________ _________ molecules into hydrogen and oxygen light split water

  10. 2 Main steps of PS or • Dark Reactions—can occur in light ____ darkness. Follows light reactions • Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts • Also known as Carbon fixationbecause CO2 will get “fixed up” with the hydrogens and energy from the light reaction

  11. Light Reactions • Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight. • Water is __________ _________ • Oxygen is ______________ • Oxygen leaves the plant and goes into the air broken down released

  12. The Dark Reactions CO2 • _________ is added to a cycle of reactions to build larger molecules • A molecule of simple sugar is formed • _____________ glucose

  13. Section 4.2 Review • What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis? • What goes in the light reactions? What comes out? • What goes in the dark reactions? What comes out? Absorbs energy from sunlight IN: light and water OUT: Oxygen IN: CO2 OUT: Glucose (C6H12O6)

  14. The route from food to energy GLUCOSE

  15. Glycolysis • Breaks glucose down into 2 pyruvic acid molecules • Occurs in ______________ cytoplasm

  16. Glycolysis • 2 ATP invested • 4 ATP generated • ___ “net” ATP gained 2

  17. Fermentation • Occurs after glycolysis • Does ______ require oxygen • ______________ • Switches NADH back into NAD+ • Allows glycolysis to continue not Anaerobic

  18. Fermentation • Two types • _______________ fermentation • __________ ________ fermentation Alcoholic Lactic acid

  19. Section 4.4 Review—Part A • Where does glycolysis take place? • What goes into glycolysis? What comes out of glycolysis? • Why does fermentation occur? • What are the two different types of fermentation? Cytoplasm IN: Glucose OUT: 2 ATP & 3 carbon molecule No oxygen present Lactic acid Alcoholic

  20. Aerobic Respiration • After glycolysis • Only in _______________ • Require _________ • _________ process • NOT THE SAME AS REGULAR RESPIRATION! eukaryotes oxygen Aerobic

  21. Where does aerobic respiration happen? • In the mitochondria! • _______________ are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use Mitochondria

  22. 2 Main steps of Aerobic Respiration • Kreb’s cycle • Pyruvic acid is broken down into ________ in a series of energy-extracting reactions • 2 ATP are generated CO2

  23. 2 Main steps of Aerobic Respiration • __________ ___________ ________ • Uses high energy electrons from the Kreb’s cycle to convert ADP into ATP • _____________ are produced Electron transport chain 32 ATP

  24. Section 4.4 Review—Part B • Where does aerobic respiration take place? • What goes into the Kreb’s cycle? What comes out? • What goes into electron transport? What comes out? • How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? Mitochondria IN: 3 carbon molecule OUT: ATP, CO2 IN: Oxygen OUT: ATP!!! Reactants of one are basically the products of the other