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France 1814-48. The Restoration. The Restored Bourbons. Character of Louis XVIII – what kind of man was he? Good choice as King? The ‘100 Days’ What problems do you think he will face? What solutions can you offer him?. Louis XVIII. 59 years old, fat & walked with difficulty

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The restoration l.jpg

France 1814-48

The Restoration


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The Restored Bourbons

  • Character of Louis XVIII – what kind of man was he? Good choice as King?

  • The ‘100 Days’

  • What problems do you think he will face?

  • What solutions can you offer him?


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Louis XVIII

  • 59 years old, fat & walked with difficulty

  • Dull and uninspiring but not without intelligence

  • Had been in exile for many years

  • Appalled by the Revolution


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Support for Louis?

  • Talleyrand worked hard to persuade Allies to restore Louis

  • “wanted for what he stood for rather than for what he really was”

  • Seen as the rightful king of France


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What problems will he face?

  • Royalist dreams

    : Return of privileges and wealth

    : Not necessarily a return to pre-1789

    : Revenge for suffering in the Revolution

    : Wished for an end to warfare and economic dislocation


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What problems will he face?

  • Republican fears

    : Return of landowners might lead to loss of land and freedoms

    : Restoration of Church?

    : Loss of status and political power

  • Threats from Bonapartists

  • War damaged France?


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Early problems

  • Louis, the Army & the civil service

  • The 100 Days

  • 2nd Treaty of Paris

  • The Ultras & the White Terror

  • ‘La Chambre Introuvable’


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Demonstrated

fragility of

Louis’ support

2nd Treaty of

Paris

What impact did the

100 Days have?

Severely damaged

policy of

reconciliation

The White Terror


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2nd Treaty of Paris

1st Treaty of

Paris very

lenient & seen

as honourable

settlement

By 2nd Treaty

France had to

pay indemnity

& suffer army

of occupation

Would this make

life easier or

more difficult

for the new

King & his

regime?


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Extreme Royalists

Supported Divine

Right

White Terror followed

2nd Restoration

The Ultras

‘La Chambre Introuvable”

:chance for counter-

Revolution?


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Successes 1815-1820

  • Issued Charter – showed intentions

  • Chamber dissolved & franchise altered

  • More moderate assembly elected

  • Growing confidence in regime

  • Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle great success

  • Ultras thwarted


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1820-1824

  • Murder of Duc de Berri huge blow

  • Richlieu recalled to government

  • Start of Ultra revival

  • Beginnings of Charbonnier movement

  • Ultras beginning to join the government

  • 4 sergeants of La Rochelle

  • 1823 Intervention in Spain

  • Death of Louis XVIII


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Was Louis a good choice as King?

  • Made good attempt at reconciliation

  • “No great blunders had been made by Louis, but the slide away from moderate policies and towards extreme Royalism had already begun before Charles X officially became king.”


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Accession of Charles X

Dynasty seemed very secure

  • Support from both Chambers

  • Birth of new heir

  • Young 67

  • But not all was well!


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Charles & pays legal

  • Deeply distrusted by majority

  • PL = 100k allowed to vote

  • Only 15k of richest could be MP

  • Main concern was maintenance of power & position

  • Would challenge any return to despotism


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Compensation

for

emigres

Attitude

towards

religion

Attitude towards

Parliament

Treatment of the

Press


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Political Parties

Constitutionalists

Ultras

Liberals


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Jules de Polignac

Charles & Parliament

Strong position in 1824?

Polarisation of politics – loss of middle ground

Charles calls fresh elections 1827

Villele unpopular – Charles facing opposition from L & R

Charles

points

new

chief

minister

Growing support

for opposition


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Charles X: Final Days

  • 1830 elections to be ‘managed’

  • Four Ordinances seen as direct challenge to the Charter

  • No action taken to prevent any possible action by opposition

  • ‘3 Glorious Days’ saw abdication in 1830


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