INTERPERSONAL SKILLS. THE ABILITY TO RELATE TO COLLEAGUES AND CUSTOMERS, INSPIRE OTHERS, RESOLVE CONFLICTS, BE TACTFUL, UNDERSTAND CULTURES, AND SHOW DIPLOMACY. Interpersonal Relationship - Definition.
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS THE ABILITY TO RELATE TO COLLEAGUES AND CUSTOMERS, INSPIRE OTHERS, RESOLVE CONFLICTS, BE TACTFUL, UNDERSTAND CULTURES, AND SHOW DIPLOMACY.
Interpersonal Relationship - Definition • Interpersonal Relationships are social associations, connections or affiliations between two or more people. • They imply the discovery or establishment of common ground and may be centered on something shared in common.
Interpersonal Skills/ Facilitation Skills listening questioning language & communication using feedback conflict handling
ESSENTIAL IP COMPETENCIES • Self awareness • Control • Motivation • Acknowledging the interests of subordinates • Communication skills
Factors Hampering Interpersonal Interactions • Poor Listening • Emotional Arousal • Lack of Time • Differences in objective
Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis A unified system of individual and social psychiatry Focuses on the individual but also one’s relationship to others • A model for explaining why and how: • People think like they do • People act like they do • People interact/communicate with others
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS “Study of inter and intra individual transactions where there is a stimulus and response”. Transactional analysis is a method of analyzing human behavior in social transactions. It is a study of human relations through the study of stimuli and response. It is an extension of Freudian theory Id Ego Super Ego TA was developed by Eric Berne and popularized by Harries. Marial James, Dorthy Jongeward and Wagner.
Psycho-Analytical or Psycho-Dynamic Theory “Sigmund Freud’s STRUCTURAL MODEL OF MENTAL LIFE” ID Psychic energy Inherited, Presented at birth, Present in life. Store of wishes and unconscious. Strives for immediate pleasure and avoid pain. Insistent and rash. Does not tolerate un-comforts-tension. Immoral, animal drives, Unorganized. EGO The Gateway of Action Separates reality from unreality, Logical, realistic, practical and rational. Consciously distinguish between the demands of ID & Realities. Regulate and integrate inner motives and source of Tension release. SUPER EGO Sensor agent of – Value, belief and standards of the society. Ideals & noble thoughts. Acquired from parents, teachers, friends, religion, etc., Describes the right and wrong. Mediates, filters action.
EGO A Psychological State of an Individual, which Guide the Way of Feeling, Thinking and Behavior EGO Status Controlling Protective Critical Nurturing Instructive Help --------------- Control PARENT (Taught Ego) Rational Factual Unemotional Independent Problem solver ADULT (Acquired by Maturity) Free Dependent Spontaneous Curious Creative Rebel Clumsy Frustrated Pleasure seeking CHILD (Felt Ego) LP Adp
Types of Transactions COMPLIMENTARY OPEN P P P – P – C P= Parent A – A – C A=Adult C – C C=Child BLOCKED P – A C - P A A C C CROSS P P A A C C ULTERIOR - - Transactions influenced by other than ego status (Hidden Meanings) GALLOWS TRANSACTIONS - - In appropriate smile or love GAMES – Repeat, Find it ulterior, Sense at superficial level INEFFECTIVE STYLES OF GAMES – Perfectionist, Driver, Power game, and Pleasure game
Types of Transactions Complementary Transactions: Appropriate and Expected Transactions indicating healthy human relationships. Communication takes place when transactions are complementary. A stimulus invites a response; this response becomes a stimulus inviting further response and so on.
P P A A C C Transactional Analysis Types (I) Complementary transaction Supervisor Employee
Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis occurs when the ego states of 2 people interacting is assessed • Complimentary interaction: • one person in a nurturing parent ego state • other person in their adaptive child ego state
Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis For a leader-follower, the following complementary transactions could occur:
Types of Transactions Crossed Transaction: This causes most difficulties in social situations. “May be, you should improve your study habits”. “You always find fault with me whatever I do” Parent-Child interaction.
Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis For a leader-follower, there are a number of possible crossed transactions:
P P P P A A A A C C C C Transactional Analysis Types (III) Ulterior transaction Supervisor Employee Supervisor Employee
LIFE POSITIONS “Assumption about self and others in the Societies” I am OK - You are not OK I am not OK - You are OK I am not OK - You are not OK I am OK - You are OK I am OK You are not OK I am OK You are OK POSITIVE Attitude Towards Self I am not OK You are not OK I am not OK You are OK NEGATIVE NEGATIVE POSITIVE
STROKES • Positive • Negative • Neutral
LIFE SCRIPTS AND STROKES: A stroke is a unit of recognition may be positive or negative of a condition or both, strokes are required for healthy behavior. Strokes may be physical, verbal or eye-to-eye contact. Child hood learning influences the behavior If a child lives with criticism, he/she learns to fight. If a child lives with hostility, he/she learns to condemn. If a child lives with ridicule, he/she learns to be shy. If a child lives with shame, he/she learns to feel guilty. If a child lives with tolerance, he/she learns to be patient. If a child lives with encouragement, he/she learns confidence. If a child lives with praise, he/she learns to appreciate. If a child lives with fairness, he/she learns justice. If a child lives with security, he/she learns to have faith. If a child lives with approval, he/she learns to like himself. If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, he/she learns to find love in the world.
JOHARI WINDOW Feed Back Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to others Open Area Blind Area Discussion Hidden Area Unknown Area Unknown to others
Thomas’s Conflict Resolution Model • Compete-When? • Quick anddecisive action is vital • Unpopular actions need to be • implement • You know are right • Against people who take advantages • of non competitive behavior • Collaborate –If • An integrative solution is required • Your objective is to learn • You gain Commitment by transforming • concern in to consensus • You work through feelings that have • interfered with relations • Compromise-When--- • Goals are worthier than • efforts of assertive mode or disruption • When opponents of equal power are • committed to mutually exclusive goals • Temporary settlements are required • Collaboration or Competition are not • useful. • Accommodate, if- • You find, that you are • Wrong • You wish the co-operation • of others • You want social credits for • later issues • You expect others to learn • From their mistakes • Avoiding, if • If is a trivial issue • You perceive • chance of winning • Others can solve • it better than you • You want people • and situation to • cool down