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Developing Interpersonal Skills

Developing Interpersonal Skills

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Developing Interpersonal Skills

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  1. Developing Interpersonal Skills

  2. Overview • Listening and feedback skills • Delegation skills • Managing conflict • Negotiating skills • Writing evaluations Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  3. Quick Write Think of someone in your life who has good “people skills.” Give an example of what that means for you. Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clilpart.com

  4. Listening and Feedback Skills Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Thinkstock Images

  5. Four Essentials of Listening • Intensity • Empathy • Acceptance • Responsibility for Completeness Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  6. Why Feedback Skills are Important • Positive feedback tends to fit with people’s image that they are working well • People tend to tune out negative feedback, Yet if delivered properly, it can offer Important learning opportunities Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  7. How to Give Feedback • Focus on Specific Behaviors • Keep Feedback Impersonal • Keep Feedback goal oriented • Time Feedback Carefully • Ensure Understanding • Direct Negative Feedback Toward Behavior the Receiver Can Control Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  8. Air Force Tips for Better Feedback To give feedback that another person will willingly accept, you must develop a relationship of trust first Present your perceptions and opinions as such, and not as facts Give feedback on specific relevant behavior, not on generalities, your own opinions, or your personal feelings toward the individual Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of U.S. Air Force

  9. Air Force Tips for Better Feedback Frame your “grading” comments in terms of established standards, probable outcomes, and ways to improve Feedback should motivate, build self-confidence, or reinforce top performance – if it will not, do not offer it Listen carefully to make sure you’ve understood the other person correctly Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  10. Air Force Tips for Better Feedback Give positive feedback in a manner that communicates acceptance of the other person as someone worthwhile Avoid “loaded” terms that produce emotional reactions and heightened defenses Remember that feedback stops when communication stops Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  11. Delegation Skills Delegation is the assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific activities Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Pixland Images

  12. How to Delegate Effectively • Clarify the Assignment • Specify the Range of Discretion • Let Employee’s Participate • Let Others Know You Have Delegated • Set Up Feedback Controls Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clilpart.com

  13. Optional ExerciseFeedback & Delegation Divide the class into groups of three One member will play the role of the manager A second member will play the role of the employee The third member serves as the observer Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  14. Feedback & DelegationScenario Three days ago, you gave your employee the assignment to make copies of a proposal for a presentation you are making to a potential new customer tomorrow. The copies have still not been made, but you do not have time to prepare the presentation and make the copies (a rather extensive, time-consuming process). You are not pleased that the copies have not been made, but you still need to delegate the assignment to your employee. Offer feedback and delegate the assignment. Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  15. Optional ExerciseFeedback & Delegation As the manager, give your employee feedback based on the scenario and delegate a new assignment to the employee. As the employee, you may respond in any manner you see fit. Observers are to offer both the manager and the employee feedback following the role play. Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  16. Managing Conflict Conflict refers to perceived difference resulting in interference or opposition Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  17. Three Views of Conflict Traditional View all conflict is bad and must be avoided Human Relations View conflict is natural and inevitable and has the potential to be a positive force Interactionist View some conflict is necessary for an organization to perform effectively Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  18. Can Conflict be Positive and Negative? Functional conflict is conflict that supports an organization’s goals Dysfunctional conflict is conflict that prevents an organization from achieving its goals Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of BananaStock Images

  19. Styles of Handling Conflict Cooperativenessis thedegree to which you try to resolve the conflict by satisfying the other person’s concerns Assertivenessis the degree to which you try to resolve the conflict by satisfying your own concerns Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  20. Styles of Addressing Conflict • Competing • Collaborating • Avoiding • Accommodating • Compromising Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Thinkstock Images

  21. Use Competing When… • A quick, decision action is vital • People are taking advantage of non-competitive behaviors • Situation requires unpopular actions • Commitment to your solution is not critical Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  22. Use Collaboration When… • Trying to merge ideas from different people • Time pressures are minimal • All parties seriously want a win-win solution • Issue is too important to be compromised Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  23. Use Avoidance When… • Conflict is trivial • Emotions are running high • Time is needed to cool down • Potential disruption from an assertive action outweighs the benefits of resolution Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  24. Use Accommodation When… • Issue is not that important to you • You want to build up credits for later issues • You care most about harmony and stability Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of BananaStock Images

  25. Use Compromise When… • Conflicting parties are equal in power • It is desirable to achieve a temporary solution to a complex issue • Time pressures require a prompt solution Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  26. Sources of Conflict • Communication differences • Structural differentiation • Personal Conflicts Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  27. How a Manager Stimulates Conflict • Signals approval for conflict • Floats trial balloons • Plants ambitious messages • Brings in outsiders • Restructures organization • Appoints a devil's advocate Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  28. Negotiating Skills Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties who have different preferences must make a joint decision and come to an agreement Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Photos.com

  29. Two Types of Bargaining Distributive bargaining is a zero-sum negotiation, in which one side’s gain is the other’s loss Integrative bargaining is negotiation in which there is at least one settlement that involves no loss to either party – sometimes known as ‘win-win’ Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  30. The Win-Win Approach The win-win approachis preferable to simply splitting the difference because it tends to build long-term relationships and makes both sides, or all sides, feel like winners Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  31. Effective Negotiation Skills • Research the Other Side • Begin with a Positive Overture • Address Problems, Not Personalities • Pay Little Attention to Initial Offers • Emphasize Win-Win Solutions • Create a Climate of Openness and Trust • Be Open to Third-Party Help If Needed Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  32. Optional ExerciseConflict and Negotiation Form the same groups of three Switch roles from the first optional exercise Manager becomes the observer Employee becomes the manager Observer becomes the employee Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  33. Conflict and Negotiation Scenario Your employee has come to you to say in no uncertain terms, “I will not work Saturday nights any more.” Your corporate culture has an unwritten rule that says, “Everyone must work some Saturday nights.” Negotiate this conflict Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  34. Optional ExerciseFeedback & Delegation As the manager, negotiate this conflict with your employee. As the employee, you may respond in any manner you see fit. Observers are to offer both the manager and the employee feedback following the role play. Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  35. Writing Evaluations Evaluations, performance reviews, and appraisals are all names used for the same process – the review of an employee’s professional performance Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clilpart.com

  36. Purposes of Evaluations Administrative purpose Help managers allocate resources and make staffing decisions Informative purpose Help employees know whether their managers think they are doing a good job, and what in their performance needs improving Developmental purpose Serve as an action plan for further professional development – to show the employee “where we go from here” Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  37. Preparing for an Appraisal Interview Set the time, place, and length of the interview in consultation with the employee Make as many notes as possible, reviewing the written evaluation, and anticipating questions Be prepared to support every point in the written appraisal Review previous performance reviews A word on timing: It’s best not to schedule a regular annual or semiannual appraisal interview too soon after you have disciplined or reprimanded the employee Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  38. Opening an Appraisal Interview Discuss the procedures for performance evaluation, both the written document and the interview If the review is overwhelmingly positive, share the good news at once If the review is less positive, it may be good to save the overall rating for the end, after you have built a case for the assessment Keep the appraisal interview future oriented, focused on what the employee should be doing going forward Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  39. Jointly Directing an Interview Encourage the employee to talk about his or her own performance Help the employee take responsibility for shortcomings and areas needing improvement Be clear on points where performance is unacceptable and where you must take corrective action A good way to look at the interview is as a joint problem-solving effort to which both parties must contribute Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  40. Ending the Interview The interview ends when the supervisor has communicated all he or she needs to say, and the employee has had a chance to review any issues of concern At another level, though, the conversation should never come to an end The manager, in particular, should signal willingness to pick up the discussion of the employee’s performance at any time Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  41. Review • Active listening has four essential elements – intensity, empathy, acceptance, and the willingness to take responsibility for completeness • An important goal for managers is to learn how to give negative feedback in a way that allows employees to accept it and learn from it • Six tips for giving effective feedback are to focus on specific behaviors, keep feedback impersonal, keep feedback goal oriented, time feedback carefully, ensure understanding, and direct negative feedback toward behavior the receiver can control Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  42. Review • Five elements of effective delegation include clarify the assignment, specify the employee’s range of discretion, let employees participate, let others know what you have delegated, and set up feedback controls • Three different views of organizational conflict are the traditional view, the human relations view, and the interactionist view Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  43. Review • Your response to conflict-causing behavior depends on your cooperativeness or assertiveness • Cooperativeness is the degree to which you try to resolve the conflict by satisfying the other person’s concerns while assertiveness is the degree to which you try to resolve the conflict by satisfying your own concerns • Five styles for managing conflict are competing, collaborating, avoiding, accommodating, and compromising Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  44. Review • Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties who have different preferences must make a joint decision and come to an agreement • The two broad types of negotiations are distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. • Integrative, or win-win, bargaining is better because it tends to build long term relationships and allows both sides to feel like winners Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  45. Review • Seven tips for effective negotiation are to research the other side, begin with a positive overture, address problems, not personalities, pay little attention to initial offers, emphasize win-win solutions, create a climate of openness and trust, and be open to third-party help, if needed • The three purposes of performance evaluations are the administrative purpose, the informative purpose, and the developmental purpose Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  46. Summary • Listening and feedback skills • Delegation skills • Managing conflict • Negotiating skills • Writing evaluations Chapter 9 Lesson 2

  47. What’s Next… Leadership Theory Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Courtesy of Clipart.com