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Fundamental Ideas. What is Communication ??. Exchange Of Information. What is Communication??. Exchange Of Information. THE MILLION DOLLAR 'Q' "WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION". Transfer of information from one place to another. I get it !!!!!!!!!!!! My Information.

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what is communication
What is Communication ??

Exchange Of Information

slide3

What is Communication??

Exchange Of Information

slide4

THE MILLION DOLLAR 'Q'

"WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION"

Transfer of information from one place to another

I get it !!!!!!!!!!!!

My Information.

Audio Video Data Signal

Transmission Medium

Source

Destination

Free Space

Copper

Fiber Optic

how to transfer information
How to transfer information??

Through Some Carrier

Some carrier is required to carry information over long distances….

Why???

Limitation: Information cannot go beyond certain distance without the aid of a carrier

carrier
Carrier
  • Should be capable of carrying information
  • Can take it through long distance
  • Should have good speed
  • Which is the most suitable carrier??
electromagnetic wave
Electromagnetic Wave
  • Highest Known speed 3x108m/s
  • Can carry any information through modulation
  • Energetic - Can go through long distance
  • Supports multiple media Eg: Free space/Copper/Fiber etc..
electromagnetic wave1
Electromagnetic Wave
  • In electromagnetic wave electrical and magnetic fields vary harmonically
  • Harmonic oscillations at atomic level gives oscillating electric field
  • Electromagnetic wave generation
relation between electric and magnetic field
Relation between electric and magnetic field

Changing electric field gives rise to changing magnetic field & vise versa

(Perpendicular)

So in electromagnetic wave electric and magnetic fields oscillate perpendicular to each other and electromagnetic energy transmits perpendicular to both

slide10

Figure of a wave

Wavelength = distance travelled in one cycle(l)

Frequency = Number of cycles per second(n)

Velocity(v) = l x n

slide11

Electro Magnetic Spectrum

Velocity of all the electromagnetic wave is same, 3 x 108m/s

slide13

Media…..

What is the other thing required apart from carrier for transmitting signals over longer distances??

Some medium for carrying signals from transmitter to the receiver

different types of media used for transmitting signals
Different types of media used for transmitting signals….
  • Wired : Twisted Pair
  • Co-axial cable
  • Optical fiber
  • Wireless(Free space/air):Microwave
  • Satellite

Tx

Rx

Carrier

MEDIA

twisted pair
Twisted Pair
  • Twisted pair is made of two copper wires which are covered by plastics or materials that are similar
  • The insulated wires are twisted to form the communication line,the purpose of twisting the wires is to avoid electrical interference
  • Twisted pair can be combined into a cable that may consist of two,four,fifty or hundreds of pairs
  • Twisted pair is the basis of transmission media(Telephone)
coaxial cable1
Coaxial Cable
  • Coaxial cable contains two conductors which are insulated from one another
  • The inner conductor is covered by the dielectric and the outer conductor is covered by a shield
  • Coaxial cable has many applications,for instance cable TV,local networks,short run computer system links and long distance telephone transmission
  • In local network coaxial cable can support different type of traffic and data
  • By using FDM,it can carry more than 10,000 channels at a time
slide21

Optic Fiber

Optic fiber is made up of 3 parts :

Core,Cladding and jacket

  • The inner most part is the core which contains one or more thin fibers that are made up of plastic or glass
  • Each of the fiber in the core is covered by a cladding which has different optical properties from the core
  • The outer most part of the optical fiber is made up of plastic or other materials ,which is called the jacket
slide22

Optic Fiber

  • Because of greater performance and higher data rate,the application of optic fiber has dramatically increased in long distance communication and military applications
microwave1
Microwave
  • In terrestrial microwave transmission a pair of towers mounted on top of the towers will transmit signals through air
  • Microwave antennas are equipped in higher place in order to achieve better transmission effect
  • Voice transmission,television transmission and the short point to point links will be the major application of microwave transmission
satellite
Satellite
  • A satellite consists of several transponders which receive signal from one frequency band,this action is called uplink
  • The satellite will amplify or repeat the signal to other frequency band,this action is called downlink
  • A satellite link is called a microwave link
  • The most application of satellite communication will be long distance telephone transmission
  • Private business networks and television distribution
comparison of twisted pair coaxial cable and optic fiber

Fiber

Twisted Pair

Coaxial Cable

Optic

Data Rate/

4Mbps

500Mbps

Upto

Bandwidth

100Gbps

Repeater Spacing

1-10Km

1-10Km

10-100Km

Electromagnetism

Affected

Affected

Not affected

Comparison of Twisted Pair,Coaxial Cable and Optic fiber
comparison of satellite and optic fiber

Optic Fiber

Satellite

Reconfiguration

Not possible

Possible

Bandwidth

Practically

upto

36-72MHz

10

GHz

Weather Condition

Affected by storm

Not affected by

storm

Electromagnetic

Not affected

Affected

Interference

Comparison of Satellite and Optic Fiber
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