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More on the Elementary Particles and Forces in the Universe. Dr. Mike Strauss The University of Oklahoma. Two Questions Asked for Centuries. 1) What are the fundamental objects from which everything else in the universe is made?

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More on the elementary particles and forces in the universe l.jpg

More on the Elementary Particles and Forces in the Universe

Dr. Mike Strauss

The University of Oklahoma


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Two Questions Asked for Centuries

1) What are the fundamental objects from which everything else in the universe is made?

2) What are the forces or interactions that hold these objects together and how do these forces work?


What are the fundamental objects in the universe from which everything else is made l.jpg

This question has been pondered for over 2500 years

Ancient Greece (followers of Thales)

What are the fundamental objects in the universe from which everything else is made?

  • Ancient Greece (Democritus)

    • Indivisible particles called  - atomos


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At the turn of the century, (that is in 1900) two fundamental forces were known:

Gravity

Electromagnetism

How are the fundamental objects held together?or in more precise scientific languageWhat are the fundamental forces of nature?


The fundamental particles in the universe current model l.jpg

Particles fundamental forces were known:

Leptons

Latin for “Light”

Usually found alone

Quarks

A nonsense word in Finnegan’s Wake by James Joyce

Always found in groups

The Fundamental Particles in the Universe(Current Model)


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The Atom fundamental forces were known:

These electrons

are fundamental

particles (leptons).

Other fundamental

particles (quarks)

are buried deep

inside the nucleus.


The fundamental forces in the universe current model l.jpg

Forces fundamental forces were known:

Gravity

Electromagnetic Force

Weak Nuclear Force

Strong Nuclear Force

Only quarks and particles made from quarks (hadrons) interact via this force

Electroweak

The Fundamental Forces in the Universe(Current Model)


The standard model a theory of everything except gravity l.jpg

Charge = +2/3e fundamental forces were known:

Charge = -1/3e

Not yet discovered

The Standard Model:A Theory of Everything (except gravity)

The Fundamental Particles: (Fermions)

six quarks

(and antiquarks)

six leptons

(and antileptons)

u c t

d s b

e---

e

The Fundamental Forces: (Bosons)

Strong force: 8 gluons

Weak force: W+, W-, Z0

Electromagnetic force: 

And: Higgs Boson: H

(plus a lot of Nobel Prize winning math)


Quarks are very bizarre objects l.jpg
Quarks are very bizarre objects fundamental forces were known:

  • They haveno size, but they do havemass.

    • (All “elementary” particles have no apparent size)

  • They have charges that arefractionsof the proton and electron charge.

  • Theycannot be isolated

    • No quark has ever been discovered by itself.

    • They are always found in groups of three quarks or antiquarks (baryons) or one quark and one antiquark (mesons).


Terminology review l.jpg
Terminology Review fundamental forces were known:

Antiparticle:Every particle, including quarks, has an antiparticle. The charge and “quantum numbers” of the antiparticle are opposite that of the particle, and the mass is the same.

Hadron:Any particle made of quarks and/or antiquarks.

Baryon:Any particle made of three quarks. (Antibaryons are made up of three antiquarks.)

Meson:Any particle made of a quark and an antiquark.


Selected hadrons hundreds of hadrons have been discovered l.jpg

Baryons fundamental forces were known:Mesons

p: uud : ud

n: udd : uu

 uds : ud

: sss K: us

c:udc D: cu

p: uud

Selected Hadrons (Hundreds of hadrons have been discovered)

(electric charge)(electric charge)

2/3+2/3-1/3=+1 2/3-(-1/3)=+1

2/3-1/3-1/3=0 2/3-2/3=0

2/3-1/3-1/3=0 -2/3-1/3=-1

-1/3-1/3-1/3=-1 2/3-(-1/3)=+1

2/3-1/3+2/3=+1 2/3-2/3=0

-2/3-2/3+1/3=-1

  • Properties of hadrons can be explained from the properties of their constituents.

  • Most of the visible matter in the universe is made of up and down quarks and electrons.

  • Most of the known objects in the universe are made of matter and not antimatter.


The forces of nature l.jpg
The Forces of Nature fundamental forces were known:

  • Gravity: All objects in the universe are attracted to each other by this force.

  • Electromagnetic*: Holds atoms and molecules together. Most of the phenomena we experience everyday is a result of this force.

  • Weak Nuclear Force*: Responsible for radioactive decay.

  • Strong Nuclear Force: Holds quarks together in hadrons and holds the nucleus together.

    *A theory combining these two into an “electroweak” force was developed in the 1960’s and verified in 1983.


The forces of nature continued l.jpg
The Forces of Nature (continued) fundamental forces were known:

Particles Relative

ForceCarrier(s)AffectedStrengthRange

Gravity Graviton* All 10-38

EM Photon Charged 10-2 

Weak W+, W-, Z0 All 10-1 <10-18 m

Strong Gluons (8) Quarks/Gluons 1 10-15 m

Hadrons

*Not yet discovered. Not part of the “Standard Model”


How do we know the fundamental structure of anything how do you know how your car works l.jpg
How Do We Know the Fundamental Structure of Anything? fundamental forces were known:(How Do You Know How Your Car Works?)

  • Be taught by someone who already knows

  • Take it apart (or look inside)

  • Put it together


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Looking Inside Very Small Objects fundamental forces were known:

“Pudding”

“Plum Pudding”

“The Results”

Earnest Rutherford’s 1911 Experiment

Rutherford proposed the “Nucleus” to explain the results.


Early evidence for quarks late 1960 s looking inside the proton l.jpg
Early Evidence for Quarks (late 1960’s) fundamental forces were known:(Looking Inside the Proton)

Incoming

electron (e-)

Proton (p)

Deep Inelastic Scattering


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The Wave Nature of Matter fundamental forces were known:

The de Broglie Wavelength

 = h/p

h = 6.63  10-34 Js

p = mv (momentum)

In order to “see” an object, the wavelength of the probe must be smaller than the object being observed.


But how do you put protons or other particles together l.jpg
But How Do You Put Protons (or other particles) Together? fundamental forces were known:

E = m0c2

E2 = m02c4

E2 = m02c4 + c2p2

Answer: Mass is a form of energy. If I can concentrate enough energy at any point (even energy of motion—kinetic energy), I can create any particle(s) with mass.


Particle accelerators can create matter from other forms of energy l.jpg

Step 1: Accelerate two particles towards each other. They have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.

e-

e+

Step 2: Let them collide and annihilate each other to create energy or other particles.

Step 3: That energy can create any particle and its antiparticle with mass less than or equal to the total energy (E=mc2).

Particle accelerators can create matter (from other forms of energy)


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“Feynman” Diagram of e have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.+e-Annihilation

any

fundamental

particle

e.g. -

e+

Space

Photon or Z0

the

corresponding

antiparticle

e.g. +

e-

Time


Creating hadrons l.jpg

1. Quarks created from initial annihilation have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.

2. Strong nuclear force acts like a rubber band

3. Eventually the “rubber band” breaks creating new quarks

Creating Hadrons


Production of hadrons l.jpg
Production of Hadrons have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

meson

e+

meson

Space

Photon or Z0

meson

e-

meson

Time


So let s review l.jpg
So Let’s Review have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.

  • What are the two classes of fundamental particles?

  • Which class of fundamental particles are always bound together to make other subatomic particles?

  • What are the four fundamental forces?

  • Which force is so weak that it plays little role in the interactions of fundamental particles?

  • Which principle of physics allows scientist to probe the structure of matter with high energy particles?

  • Which principle of physics allows fundamental particles to be created in the laboratory?


Let s look at a few topics in more detail l.jpg
Let’s Look at a Few Topics in More Detail have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.

  • Forces as Particles

  • Quarks and Protons

  • Benefits


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What about the forces? have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.Why are they described by particles?

The interaction between two particles can be thought of as the two particles exchanging another particle. In this case, the two people throw a basketball back and forth to change their momentum. The basketball is the “carrier” of the force or interaction.


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e have a lot of energy from their motion, kinetic energy.+

e-

Now consider an electron (with a negative charge)

and a positron (with a positive charge) approaching each other at a rapid rate.


Slide27 l.jpg

This can be thought of as the two particles exchanging a “photon” which, in turn, changes their direction as indicted in this Feynman Diagram

e+

e+

Space

Photon

e-

e-

Time


Different quarks have different masses l.jpg

(The following masses are in GeV/c “photon” which, in turn, changes their direction as indicted in this Feynman Diagram2)

Up quark (u): 0.0004 Down quark (d): 0.0007

Charm quark (c): 1.5 Strange quark (s): 0.15

Top quark (t): 175 Bottom quark (b): 4.7

Different quarks have different masses

The equation E=mc2 is used to define the mass of an object. In these units, a proton has a mass of about 1 billion electron volts (1 GeV/c2).

The mass of just one top quark is more than the entire mass of a gold nucleus which has 79 protons and 118 neutrons, or more than 591 up and down quarks!


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Quarks have fractional charge “photon” which, in turn, changes their direction as indicted in this Feynman Diagram

In a very basic model:

A neutron is made of 3 quarks: up, down, down (udd)

Charge: +(2/3) - (1/3) - (1/3) = 0

A proton is also made of 3 quarks: up, up, down (uud)

Charge: +(2/3) + (2/3) - (1/3) = 1

All the properties of the neutron and proton can be derived from the properties of its constituent particles.


Why are quarks always bound together l.jpg

The force that holds quarks together is called the strong nuclear force.

There are 3 types of strong nuclear charge which can attract quarks to each other and cause them to bind together.

Why are quarks always bound together?


Strong charge l.jpg

Larry, Curly, Moe nuclear force.

knife, fork, spoon

Strong charge

  • Objects with strong charge interact via the strong force

  • Three types of strong charge

anti-larry, anti-curly, anti-moe


Three strong charges l.jpg

Every color is attracted to its anticolor nuclear force.

color

Three strong charges

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)


Hadrons in nature are colorless l.jpg

Baryons: nuclear force.

3 quarks

1 green, one red, one blue

Constantly changing color

Antibaryons have 3 anti-quarks

With 3 different anti-colors constantly changing

Some Baryons

Proton

Neutron

Lambda

Sigma

Anti-proton

Mesons

1 quark and 1 anti-quark

Color and anticolor constantly changing

Some Mesons

Pion

Kaon

Eta

Hadrons in nature are colorless


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Quark and Gluon Color nuclear force.

  • At any “moment” in a baryon, the three quarks are three different colors.

  • At any moment in a meson, the quark is a particular color and the antiquark is the corresponding anticolor.

  • Gluons can also carry color so they can interact with each other.

    • When gluons are exchanged between quarks, they can change the color of the quarks. The type of quark, or flavor, cannot be changed by a gluon.


A model of the structure of a proton l.jpg
A model of the Structure of a Proton nuclear force.

valence

quarks

u

u

Space

u

u

gluons

d

d

Time


Virtual particles exist l.jpg

E nuclear force.1

E3

E2

Virtual Particles Exist!

It’s as if a tennis ball changed into a bowling ball and an “anti”-bowling ball for a brief moment, before turning back into a tennis ball.

E1=E3

DE = E2 E1

DEDt  h/2p


A more complete model of the structure of a proton l.jpg
A more complete model of the Structure of a Proton nuclear force.

valence

quarks

virtual

“sea” quarks

u

u

q

q

Space

u

u

gluons

d

d

Time


Neutron decay and the weak force described using particles l.jpg
Neutron Decay and the Weak Force Described Using Particles nuclear force.

e-

e

W-

Space

d

u

Neutron

d

d

Proton

u

u

Time


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Question: nuclear force.The neutron has a mass of about 1 GeV/c2 and the W has a mass of about 84 GeV/c2. How is energy conserved in neutron decay?

Answer: During the very brief period of time that the W exists, energy is not conserved? ...How can this be?

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle:

Et≥h/2

mc2(d/c) ≥h/2

mc2≥hc/2d

d ≥h/2mc

So if d <h/2mc a “virtual” particle can be produced.

(h = 6.63  10-34 Js)


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Benefits of High Energy Physics nuclear force.

  • Answers questions about the structure and origin of the universe that have been pondered for millennia.

  • Leads to future technology. Technological advances can only be made when the underlying physical principles are understood.

    • e.g. Electricity, Semi-conductors, Superconductors

  • “Spin-off” applications result from technologies developed to accelerate, collide and detect particles.

    • CT scans, Proton Therapy, World Wide Web

  • Builds a foundation for other areas of science.

  • Develops an educated work force.

  • Economic benefits (30% return on investment).


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