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Neutrinos – Ghost Particles of the Universe. Neutrinos Ghost Particles of the Universe. Georg G. Raffelt Max-Planck-Institut f ür Physik, München, Germany. Periodic System of Elementary Particles. Quarks. Leptons. Charge + 2/3. Charge - 1/3. Charge - 1.

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Neutrinos – Ghost Particles of the Universe


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    1. Neutrinos – Ghost Particles of the Universe Neutrinos Ghost Particles of the Universe Georg G. Raffelt Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, Germany

    2. Periodic System of Elementary Particles Quarks Leptons Charge +2/3 Charge -1/3 Charge -1 Charge 0 d e ne u Up Electron 1stFamily Down e-Neutrino d e ne Up u Electron Down e-Neutrino s m nm 2ndFamily Strange Charm Muon m-Neutrino c b t nt 3rd Family Bottom Top Neutron t Tau t-Neutrino Higgs Strong Interaction (8 Gluons) Electromagnetic Interaction (Photon) Proton Weak Interaction (W and Z Bosons) Gravitation (Gravitons?)

    3. Where do Neutrinos Appear in Nature?   Sun Nuclear Reactors Supernovae (Stellar Collapse) SN 1987A   Particle Accelerators Earth Atmosphere (Cosmic Rays) Astrophysical Accelerators   Cosmic Big Bang (Today 330 n/cm3) Indirect Evidence Earth Crust (Natural Radioactivity) 

    4. Neutrinos from the Sun Helium Reaction- chains Energy 26.7 MeV Solar radiation: 98 % light (photons) 2 % neutrinos At Earth 66 billion neutrinos/cm2 sec Hans Bethe (1906-2005, Nobel prize 1967) Thermonuclear reaction chains (1938)

    5. Sun Glasses for Neutrinos? 8.3 light minutes Several light years of lead needed to shield solar neutrinos Bethe & Peierls 1934: … this evidently means that one will never be able to observe a neutrino.

    6. First Detection (1954 – 1956) Clyde Cowan (1919 – 1974) Fred Reines (1918 – 1998) Nobel prize 1995 Detector prototype Anti-Electron Neutrinos from Hanford Nuclear Reactor 3 Gammas in coincidence g n Cd g p g

    7. First Measurement of Solar Neutrinos Inverse beta decay of chlorine 600 tons of Perchloroethylene Homestake solar neutrino observatory (1967–2002)

    8. 2002 Physics Nobel Prize for Neutrino Astronomy Ray Davis Jr. (1914–2006) Masatoshi Koshiba (*1926) “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

    9. Cherenkov Effect Light Electron or Muon (Charged Particle) Neutrino Light Cherenkov Ring Elastic scattering or CC reaction Water

    10. Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Detector (Since 1996) 42 m 39.3 m

    11. Super-Kamiokande: Sun in the Light of Neutrinos ca. 60,000 solar neutrinos measured in Super-K (1996–2012)

    12. Results of Chlorine Experiment (Homestake) ApJ 496:505, 1998 Theoretical Expectation Average Rate Average (1970-1994)2.56  0.16stat 0.16sysSNU (SNU = Solar Neutrino Unit = 1 Absorption / sec / 1036 Atoms) Theoretical Prediction 6-9 SNU “Solar Neutrino Problem” since 1968

    13. Neutrino Flavor Oscillations Two-flavor mixing Each mass eigenstate propagates as with Phase difference implies flavor oscillations Probability Bruno Pontecorvo (1913–1993) Invented nu oscillations z Oscillation Length

    14. Oscillation of Reactor Neutrinos at KamLAND (Japan) Oscillation pattern for anti-electron neutrinos from Japanese power reactors as a function of L/E KamLAND Scintillator detector (1000 t)

    15. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations (1998) Atmospheric neutrino oscillations show characteristic L/E variation

    16. Long-Baseline (LBL) Experiments • K2K Experiment • (KEK to Kamiokande) • measures precise • neutrino oscillation • parameters. • Since then other LBL • Experiments: • Minos (US) • Opera (Europe) • T2K (Japan) • Nova (US) • (construction)

    17. Q13from Reactor Experiments (2012) 4MeV ͞e sin22θ13 = 0.089 ± 0.010 (stat) ± 0.005 (syst) Daya Bay (China) 0.113 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.019 (syst) Reno (Korea) Double Chooz (Europe) 0.086 ± 0.041 (stat) ± 0.030 (syst)

    18. Three-Flavor Neutrino Parameters e e m m t t e e m m t t m m t t Three mixing angles ,, (Euler angles for 3D rotation), , a CP-violating “Dirac phase” , and two “Majorana phases” and v Relevant for 0n2b decay Reactor Solar/KamLAND Atmospheric/LBL-Beams Normal Inverted • Tasks and Open Questions • Precision for all angles • CP-violating phase d? • Mass ordering? • (normal vs inverted) • Absolute masses? • (hierarchical vs degenerate) • Dirac or Majorana? 72–80 meV2 2 3 Sun Atmosphere 1 Atmosphere 2180–2640 meV2 2 Sun 1 3

    19. Antineutrino Oscillations Different from Neutrinos? Dirac phase causes different 3-flavor oscillations for neutrinos and antineutrinos same as Distance [1000 km] for E = 1 GeV

    20. Neutrino Carabiner Now also in color Named for a subatomic particle with almost zero mass, … n Greek “nu”

    21. “Weighing” Neutrinos with KATRIN • Sensitive to common mass scale m • for all flavors because of small mass • differences from oscillations • Best limit from Mainz und Troitsk • m < 2.2 eV (95% CL) • KATRIN can reach 0.2 eV • Under construction • Data taking to begin 2015/16 • http://www.katrin.kit.edu

    22. KATRIN Ante Portas (25 Nov 2006)

    23. Weighing Neutrinos with the Universe

    24. Cosmological Limit on Neutrino Masses Cosmic neutrino “sea”112 cm-3neutrinos + anti-neutrinos per flavor For all stable flavors JETP Lett. 4 (1966) 120

    25. What is wrong with neutrino dark matter? Galactic Phase Space (“Tremaine-Gunn-Limit”) Maximum mass density of a degenerate Fermi gas Spiral galaxies mn>20–40 eV Dwarf galaxies mn> 100–200 eV Neutrino Free Streaming (Collisionless Phase Mixing) • AtT<1MeVneutrinoscatteringinearlyuniverse is ineffective • Stream freely until non-relativistic • Wash out density contrasts on small scales • Neutrinos are “Hot Dark Matter” • Ruled out by structure formation Neutrinos Neutrinos Over-density

    26. Sky Map of Galaxies (XMASS XSC) http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/jarrett/2mass/XSC/jarrett_allsky.html

    27. Structure Formation with Hot Dark Matter Standard LCDM Model Neutrinos with Smn = 6.9 eV Structure fromation simulated with Gadget code Cube size 256 Mpc at zero redshift Troels Haugbølle, http://users-phys.au.dk/haugboel

    28. Neutrino Mass Limits Post Planck (2013) CMB alone constraining Smn CMB + BAO constraining Smn + Neff CMB + BAO limit: Smn < 0.23 eV (95% CL) Ade et al. (Planck Collaboration), arXiv:1303.5076

    29. Future Cosmological Neutrino Mass Sensitivity Pin down the neutrino mass in the sky! ESA’s Euclid satellite to be launched in 2020 Precision measurement of the universe out to redshift of 2 Basse, Bjælde, Hamann, Hannestad & Wong, arXiv:1304.2321: Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    30. Neutrinos as Astrophysical Messengers   Sun Nuclear Reactors Supernovae (Stellar Collapse) SN 1987A   Particle Accelerators Earth Atmosphere (Cosmic Rays) Astrophysical Accelerators   Cosmic Big Bang (Today 330 n/cm3) Indirect Evidence Earth Crust (Natural Radioactivity) 

    31. Geo Neutrinos: What is it all about? • We know surprisingly little about • the Earth’s interior • Deepest drill hole 12 km • Samples of crust for chemical • analysis available (e.g. vulcanoes) • Reconstructed density profile • from seismic measurements • Heat flux from measured • temperature gradient 30-44 TW • (Expectation from canonical BSE • model 19 TW from crust and • mantle, nothing from core) • Neutrinos escape unscathed • Carry information about chemical composition, radioactive energy • production or even a hypothetical reactor in the Earth’s core

    32. Geo Neutrinos Expected Geoneutrino Flux KamLAND Scintillator-Detector (1000 t) Reactor Background

    33. Reactor On-Off KamLAND Data 2011 Earthquake Reactors shut down Scintillator Purification KamLAND-Zen Construction KamLAND Collaboration, arXiv:1303.4667 (2013)

    34. KamLAND Geo-Neutrino Flux Geoneutrino events (U/Th= 3.9 fixed) Separately free fitting: U 116 events Th 8 events Beginning of neutrino geophysics! KamLAND Collaboration, arXiv:1303.4667 (2013)

    35. Applied Anti-Neutrino Physics (AAP) Applied Anti-Neutrino Physics (AAP) Annual Conference Series since 2004 • Neutrino geophysics • Reactor monitoring (“Neutrinos for Peace”) • Relatively small detectors can • measure nuclear activity • without intrusion • Of interest for monitoring by • International Atomic Energy Agency • (Monitors fissile material in civil • nuclear cycles)

    36. 100 years later we are still asking What are the sources for the primary cosmic rays? Cosmic Rays • Air Shower: • 1019 eV primary particle • 100 billion secondary • particles at sea level Victor Hess (1911/12)

    37. Neutrino Beams: Heaven and Earth p Target: Protons or Photons Approx. equal fluxes of photons & neutrinos Equal neutrino fluxes in all flavors due to oscillations F. Halzen (2002)

    38. Nucleus of the Active Galaxy NGC 4261

    39. IceCube Neutrino Telescope at the South Pole Instrumentation of 1 km3 antarctic ice with 5000 photo multipliers completed December 2010

    40. Two High-Energy Events in IceCube Ernie ~ 1.1 PeV Bert ~ 1.3 PeV

    41. Ernie & Bert and 26 Additional Events in IceCube Significance of all 28 events: 4.1s, Background Ernie & Bert

    42. SN 1006 over Sydney Supernova Neutrinos

    43. Crab Nebula

    44. Stellar Collapse and Supernova Explosion Collapse (implosion) Main-sequence star Onion structure Helium-burning star Degenerate iron core: r 109 g cm-3 T  1010 K MFe 1.5 Msun RFe  3000 km Hydrogen Burning Helium Burning Hydrogen Burning

    45. Stellar Collapse and Supernova Explosion Collapse (implosion) Newborn Neutron Star Explosion 50 km Proto-Neutron Star rrnuc= 31014g cm-3 T 30 MeV

    46. Stellar Collapse and Supernova Explosion Neutrino cooling by diffusion Newborn Neutron Star 50 km Gravitational binding energy Eb 3  1053 erg  17% MSUN c2 This shows up as 99% Neutrinos 1% Kinetic energy of explosion 0.01% Photons, outshine host galaxy Neutrino luminosity Ln3  1053 erg / 3 sec 3  1019LSUN While it lasts, outshines the entire visible universe Proto-Neutron Star rrnuc= 31014g cm-3 T 30 MeV

    47. Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) • A few core collapses per second in the visible universe • Emitted energy density ~ extra galactic background light ~ 10% of CMB density • Detectable flux at Earth mostly from redshift • Confirm star-formation rate • Nu emission from average core collapse & black-hole formation • Pushing frontiers of neutrino astronomy to cosmic distances! Beacom & Vagins, PRL 93:171101,2004 Window of opportunity between reactor and atmospheric bkg

    48. Sanduleak -69 202 Sanduleak -69 202 Supernova 1987A 23 February 1987 Tarantula Nebula Large Magellanic Cloud Distance 50 kpc (160.000 light years)

    49. Neutrino Signal of Supernova 1987A Kamiokande-II (Japan) Water Cherenkov detector 2140 tons Clock uncertainty 1 min Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven (US) Water Cherenkov detector 6800 tons Clock uncertainty 50 ms Baksan Scintillator Telescope (Soviet Union), 200 tons Random event cluster 0.7/day Clock uncertainty +2/-54 s Within clock uncertainties, all signals are contemporaneous

    50. Do Neutrinos Gravitate? Shapiro time delay for particles moving in a gravitational potential For trip from LMC to us, depending on galactic model, –5 months Neutrinos and photons respond to gravity the same to within 1– Longo, PRL 60:173, 1988 Krauss & Tremaine, PRL 60:176, 1988 Early light curve of SN 1987A • Neutrinos arrived several hours before photons as expected • Transit time for and same ( yr) within a few hours